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Full text of "Evaluation of methods to minimize contamination hazards to wildlife using agricultural evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California : final report"

SJVDP LIBRARY 



EFFICACY OF EVAPORATION PONDS FOR 
DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATERS 



FINAL REPORT 
September 1990 



Prepared under contract for the Federal-State 

San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program through the 

Department of Water Resources 



EFFICACY OF EVAPORATION PONDS FOR 
DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATERS 



FINAL REPORT 

September 1990 



Prepared under contract for the Federal-State 

San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program through the 

Department of Water Resources 



Il 



This report represents the results of a study conducted for 
the Federal-State Interagency San Joaquin Valley Drainage 
Program. The purpose of the report is to provide the Drainage 
Program agencies with information for consideration in 
developing alternatives for agricultural drainage water 
management. Publication of any findings or recommendations 
in this report should not be construed as representing the 
concurrence of the Program agencies. Also, mention of trade 
names or commercial products does not constitute agency 
endorsement or recommendation. 



The San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program was established in mid- 1984 as a cooperative 
effort of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Geological Survey, 
California Department of Fish and Game, and California Department of Water Resources. The 
purposes of the Program are to investigate the problems associated with the drainage of irrigated 
agricultural lands in the San Joaquin Valley and to formulate, evaluate and recommend 
alternatives for the immediate and long-term management of those problems. Consistent with 
these purposes. Program objectives address the following key areas: (1) Public Health, (2) 
surface and ground water resources, (3) agricultural productivity, and (4) fish and wildlife 
resources. 

Inquiries concerning the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program may be directed to : 

San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program 

2800 Cottage Way, Room W-2143 

Sacramento, California 95825-1898 



• FINAL REPORT 



EFFICACY OF EVAPORATION PONDS FOR DISPOSAL OF 
SALINE DRAINAGE WATERS 



Prepared for the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program 
2800 Cottage Way, Room W-2143 
Sacramento, California 95825-1898 

Under contract for the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation 

through Department of Water Resources Contract No. B-56769 

by 

Kenneth K. Tanji and Randy A. Dahlgren 
Department of Land, Air and Water Resources 
University of California, Davis 
Davis, California 95616 

and assisted by research staff: 

Ann Quek, Gregory Smith, Colin Ong, Fawzi Karajeh, 
Douglas Pet«rs, Jeffrey Yoshimoto, Kazuhiko Otani 
and Mitchell Herbel 

September 1990 



fJR^^ 




^«Sl^c^" 



Table of Contents 



Page 

SECTION 1 List of Figures 1-6 

List of Tables 1-8 

List of Tables in Appendix 1-9 
Executive Summary 

Overview 110 

Pond Waters - Salinity and Major Solutes 1.10 

Pond Waters - Trace Elements 1.10 

Diurnal Monitoring - Evaporation Rates 1.11 

Diurnal Monitoring - Pond Waters 112 

Pond Mineralogy and Trace Elements 1.12 

Magnitude of Salt Load 113 

Best Design and Management Practices 114 
Introduction 

Statement of the Problem 1.15 

Scope of the Report 116 

SECTION 2 Wnter Qualify fc Chpmist r%' of Pnnd Waters 

Introduction 2.1 
Sampling and Measurement Procedures 

Pond Water Sampling 2. 1 

Chemical Analysis 2.1 
Description of Field-Measured and Chemical Analysis Data 

Introduction 2.2 

Field Measured Data 2.2 
Chemical-Analysis Data 

Major Solutes 2.2 

Trace Elements 2.2 

Conclusions 2.4 



SECTION 3 Diurnal Mon itoring of Ponds 
Introduction 
Methodology 

Water Chemistry Parameters 

Evaporation Parameters 
Observations 

Pond Waters 

Above Pond 
CIMIS Weather Data 

Floating Evaporation Pan Data 

Potential use of CIMIS ET_, as a Predictor of 

Evaporation Rate from Evaporation Ponds 

SECTION 4 A pplication of Evanorat inn Rate Models 
Introduction 
Estimation of Evaporation Rates 



3.1 

3.1 
3.1 

3.2 
3.2 

3.18 

3.18 



4.1 
4.1 



page 1.4 



SECTION 5 Mi"P'"a^o£^ nf Prprinitates 
Introduction 
Analytical Procedure 
Pond Mineralog>' 
A Note Concerning Mineralogic Nomenclature 

SECTION 6 Trnre Element Accumi ilation in Pond Waters 
Introduction 
Evapoconcentration 
ECF Formulae 

Verification Example for Time-Dependent ECF Formulae 
Extended Application ofTDECF 
Results 
Conclusions 

SECTION 7 Trnrp Elemp nf.; Associat/>d v,nth Evanorites 
Introduction 
Methodology 
Results 

SECTION 8 Mapnitude o f Salt Load 
Introduction 
Unit Values 

Magnitudes Discharged into Ponds 
Accumulation in Ponds 

SECTION 9 Remmmended Desi^ a nd Rp^^t ManflFement Practices 
Sustaining Optimal Pond Evaporation 
Factors Which Affect the Evaporation Rate 

Net Radiation 

Salinity 

Ormat Process 

Color of Solution 

Salt Precipitation 

Sadan Proposal 
Best Design to Sustain Evaporation Rate and Precipitation 

Size 

Shape 

Depth 

Cells 

Embankment 

Lining and Interceptor Drain 
Best Management Options 
Constraints 

SECTION 10 References 



5.1 

5.1 
5.1 
5.3 



6.1 
6.1 
6.1 
6.2 
6.3 
6.4 
6.4 



7.1 
7.1 
7.1 



8.1 
8.1 
8.2 
8.2 



9.1 
9.1 
9.1 
9.2 
9.2 
9.2 
9.2 
9.3 

9.3 
9.4 
9.4 
9.4 
9.4 
9.4 
9.4 
9.5 

10.1 



SECTION 11 



Appendices 
Appendix A: 
Appendix B: 



Evaporation Pond Diurnal Monitoring Data 
CIMIS Weather Data from Stations Near To 



Evaporation Ponds 



11.1 
11.11 



page 1.5 



List of Figures 



Figure 1.1 Areas of Shallow Groundwater 

Figure 2.1 Ternary diagrams of the relative concentrations of major 

cations and anions in evaporation pond waters (meq/1 basis). 
Figure 3.1 Weather monitoring equipment set-up. 

Figure 3.2 March Diurnal Study: Pryse (Water Sample Analysis). 

Figure 3.3 March Diurnal Study: Barbizon (Water Sample Analysis). 

Figure 3.4 March Diurnal Study: Peck 3 NW (Water Sample Analysis). 

Figure 3.5 March Diurnal Study: Peck 5 SW (Water Sample Analysis). 

Figure 3.6 March Diurnal Study: Pryse (Weather Monitoring). 

Figure 3.7 March Diurnal Study: Peck (Weather Monitoring). 

Figure 3.8 March Diurnal Study: Barbizon (Weather Monitoring). 

Figure 3.9 August Diurnal Study: Pryse (Water Sample Analysis). 

Figure 3.10 August Diurnal Study: Barbizon (Water Sample Analysis). 
Figure 3.11 August Diurnal Study: Peck 1 NW (Water Sample Analysis). 
Figure 3.12 August Diurnal Study: Peck BS (Water Sample Analysis). 
Figure 3.13 August Diurnal Study: Peck SP (Water Sample Analysis). 
Figure 3.14 August Diurnal Study: Pryse (Weather Monitoring). 
Figure 3.15 August Diurnal Study: Barbizon (Weather Monitoring). 
Figure 3.16 August Diurnal Study: Peck (N^'eather Monitoring). 
Figure 3.17 Daily evaporation in relation to the salinity level in Peck 

floating evaporation pans and ET^ during the given dates in 

September, 1989. 
Figure 3.18 Trend of daily evaporation in relation to the salinity level in 

Peck floating evaporation pans and ET^ for the given dates in 

September, 1989. 
Figure 3.19 Trend of daily evaporation in relation to the salinity level in 

Peck evaporation floating evaporation pans and ET^ for the 

period Sept. 1 through Sept. 9, 1989. 
Figure 3.20 Trend of daily evaporation in relation to the salinity level in 

Peck floating evaporation pans and ET^ for the period Sept. 1 

through Sept. 9, 1989. 
Figure 3.21 Cumulative evaporation in relation to the salinity level in 

Peck floating evaporation pans and ET^ for the period Sept. 1 

through Sept. 9, 1989. 
Figure 3.22 Effect of air temperature on hourly ET^ and average 

evaporation rates from Peck floating evaporation pans (EC = 

14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989. 
Figure 3.23 Effect of solar radiation on hourly ET^ and average 

evaporation rates from Peck floating evaporation pans (EC = 

14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989. 
Figure 3.24 Effect of Relative Humidity on hourly ET__ and average 

evaporation rates from Peck floating evaporation pans (EC = 

14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989. 
Figure 3.25 Effect of wind speed on hourly ET^ sind average evaporation 

rates from Peck floating evaporation pans (EC = 14 dS/m) for 

the period August 19- 20, 1989. 
Figure 3.26 Effect of vapor pressure on hourly ET^^ and average 

evaporation rates from Peck floating evaporation pans (EC = 

14 dS/m) for the period August 19- 20, 1989. 
Figure 3.27 AverEige daily evaporation from 14 dS/m Peck floating 

evaporation pans for four months in 1989. 
Figure 3.28 Regression of ET correction factor on EC of drainage water. 



page 1.6 



Figures 3.29 CIMIS ET^, and measured and calculated daily evaporation 
from Peck floating evaporation pans with different sahnities 
using the ET^ correction factor. 
Figures 3.30 Cumulative CIMIS ET„, and measured and calculated daily 
evaporation from Peck floating evaporation pans with 
different salinities using the ET^ correction factor. 
Figure 4.1 Wind coefficient in relation to wind speed. 

Figure 4.2 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water as well as from 

saline water (EC =14 dS/m) compared to the measured rate 
from the saline floating evaporation pan at Peck pond, for the 
period August 19-20, 1989. 
Figure 4.3 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water as well as from 

saline water (EC =14 dS/m) compared to the measured rate 
from the saline floating pan at Peck pond, for the period 
August 19-20, 1989 (different data comparison). 
Figure 4.4 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water as well as from 

saline water (EC =14 dS/m) compared to the measured rate 
from the saline floating pan at Peck pond, for the period 
August 19-20, 1989 (partially excluded data). 
Figure 4.5 Evaporation in relation to vapor pressure difference between 

air and water surface at a wind speed of 2 miles per hour 
(Moore and Runkles, 1968). 
Figure 4.6 Evaporation in relation to vapor pressure difference between 

air and water surface at a wind speed of 6 miles per hour 
(Moore and Runkles, 1968). 
Figure 4.7 Relative evaporation rate [Evaporation from a saline solution 

to that of evaporation from distilled water (E/E^)] in relation 
to wind speed and salt concentration at an air temperature of 
76°F and 60% relative humidity (Moore and Runkles, 1968). 
Figure 4.8 Relative evaporation rate [Evaporation from a saline solution 

to that of evaporation from distilled water (EVE^)] in relation 
to wind speed and salt concentration at an air temperature of 
76°F and 80% relative humidity (Moore and Runkles, 1968). 
Figure 4.9 Effect of specific gravity on evaporation of brine (L. J. Turk, 

1970). 
Figure 6.1. Formulae for calculating predicted concentrations during 

evapoconcentration. 
Figure 6.2. Conditions necessary for Time-Dependent ECF calculations. 
Figure 6.3. Results of TD-ECF Calculation for Pryse Cell 2 SE using 

multiple final dates. 
Figure 6.4 Predicted and observed concentrations of arsenic and 

selenium for (from leff to right) Barbizon, Peck and Pryse 
evaporation ponds. The TDECF method is used. 
Figure 6.5 Predicted and observed concentrations of boron and 

molybdenum for (from left to right) Barbizon, Peck and Pryse 
evaporation ponds. The TDECF method is used. 
Figure 6.6 Predicted and observed concentrations of arsenic, selenium, 

boron and molybdenum for Peck evaporation pond. The 
MCECF method is used. 
Figure 7.1 Trace elements associated with evaporites from evaporation 

ponds. 



page 1.7 



List of Tables 



Table 2.1 Pond Water Sample On-Site Measurement Instrumentation. 

Table 2.2 Distribution of Trace Elements in the San Joaquin Valley. 

Table 2.2 Field-Measured Data for Seasonal Characterization of Peck 

Evaporation Waters. 
Table 2.3 Field-Measured Date for Seasonal Characterization of Peck 

Evaporation Waters. 
Table 2.4 Field-Measured Date for Seasonal Characterization of Peck 

Evaporation Waters. 
Table 2.5 Field-Measured Date for Seasonal Characterization of Pryse 

Evaporation Waters. 
Table 2.6 Field-Measured Date for Seasonal Characterization of 

Barbizon Evaporation Waters. 
Table 2.7 Results of Laboratory Chemical Analysis of Peck Evaporation 

Pond Waters. 
Table 2.8 Results of Laboratory Chemical Analysis of Peck Evaporation 

Pond Waters. 
Table 2.9 Results of Laboratory Chemical Analysis of Peck Evaporation 

Pond Waters. 
Table 2.10 Results of Laboratory Chemical Analysis of Pryse 

Evaporation Pond Waters. 
Table 2.11 Results of Laboratory Chemical Analysis of Barbizon 

Evaporation Pond Waters. 
Table 2.12 Results of Laboratory Chemical Analysis of Barbizon 

Evaporation Pond Waters. 
Table 3.1 Instruments used for measuring Pond Water Chemical 

Parameters in Diurnal Study. 
Table 3.2 Daily evaporation rate from the floating evaporation pans at 

Peck pond 
Table 3.3 Cumulative and hourly evaporation from Peck floating pans 

(EC = 14 dS/m) for August 18-29, 1989. 
Table 4.1 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water and saline water 

(EC = 14 dS/m) using CIMIS weather date and measured 

evaporation rate from saline floating pans at Peck 

evaporation pond for the 24 hour period on August 19-20, 

1989. 
Table 5.1 Evaporite Minerals Identified at Barbizon, Peck and Pryse 

Evaporation Ponds Between August 1986 and May 1988. 
Table 9.1 Evaporation rate factors and manageability. 



page 1.8 



List of Tables in Appendix 



Table A. 1 


Table A.2 


Table A.3 


Table A.4 


Table A.5 


Table A.6 


Table A. 7 


Table A.8 


Table A.9 


Table A. 10 


Table A. 11 


Table A. 12 


Table B.l 


Table B.2 


Table B.3 


Table B.4 


Table B.5 


Table B.6 



Weather Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Pryse Pond. 

Pond Water Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Pryse Pond. 

Weather Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Peck Pond. 

Pond Water Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Peck Pond. 

Weather Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Barbizon Pond. 

Pond Water Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Barbizon Pond. 

Weather Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Pryse Pond. 

Pond Water Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Pryse Pond. 

Weather Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Peck Pond. 

Pond Water Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Peck Pond. 

Weather Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Barbizon Pond. 

Pond Water Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Barbizon 

Pond. 

Houriy CIMIS weather data for McFarland station near to Pryse 

pond for March 26-27, 1989. 

Hourly CIMIS weather data for Stratford station near to Barbizon 

pond for the period March 27-28, 1989. 

Hourly CIMIS weather data for Mendota/Muriettastation near to 

Peck pond for the period March 29-30, 1989. 

Hourly CIMIS weather data for McFarland station near to Pryse 

pond for the period August 15-16, 1989. 

Houriy CIMIS weather data for Stratford station near to Barbizon 

pond for the period August 17-18, 1989. 

Hourly CIMIS weather data for Mendota/Murrietta station near to 

Peck pond for the period August 19-20, 1989. 



page 1.9 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



OVERVIEW 

This report contains information and data on site-specific field and laboratory studies on 
the physical and chemical efficacy of evaporation ponds. Data were collected from the Pryse, 
Peck and Barbizon evaporation pond facilities. The main goal of disposing saline tile drainage 
effluents into ponds is the evaporation of the impounded waters. A number of climatic, physical 
and chemical factors affect evaporation rates. The nature of salts (evaporites) deposited in ponds 
are strongly influenced by the chemical composition of the tile drainage effluent. The extent of 
evaporite precipitation is influenced by the degree of evapoconcentration of the impounded 
waters. Of particular concern is the accumulation of toxic trace elements in the pond facilities. 
The design and operational management of the ponds may influence evaporation rates. 

The following presents highlights on the physicochemical efficacy of agricultural evapo- 
ration ponds. Some of the data were collected over a three-year period (1986-89), while others 
were collected only in 1989. 

▲ Pond Waters - Salinity and Major Solutes 

• The average electrical conductivity (EC) of tile drainage discharged into Pryse pond was 
29.7 dS/m (mmhos/cm), Peck pond, 10.4 dS/m, and Barbizon pond, 8.4 dS/m. 

• The ECs in Cells 1 and 2 in Pryse pond ranged from a minimum of 25.6 to a maximum 
of 175 dS/m. On a meq per liter basis, waters in Pryse pond are classified as NaCl-Na^SO^ 
type. 

• The ECs in Cell 1 through Cell 6 in Peck pond ranged from a minimum of 8.3 to a 
maximum of 109 dS/m. Waters in Peck pond are Na^SO^ type. 

• The ECs in Cells A, B and C, separated by wind-break berms, in Barbizon pond ranged 
from a minimum of 8.8 to a maximum of 48.3 dS/m. Waters in Barbizon pond are the 
NajSO,-NaCl type. 

▲ Pond Waters • Trace Elements 

• The concentration of trace elements reported herein is the total dissolved concentration 
in ng per liter (ppb) for arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se) and mg per liter 
(ppm) for boron (B). 

• The average influent concentration of B was 9.3 ppm in Pryse pond, 7. 1 ppm in Peck pond 
and 3.5 ppm in Barbizon pond. The average As and Mo data reported herein are 
consistently greater than those reported by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality 
Control Board. 

• Using chloride (CD as a nonreactive parameter to estimate the degree of evapoconcen- 
tration in ponds (ECF), the measured concentration of B in all ponds increased in direct 
proportion to CI. 



page 1.10 



The average influent concentration of Se was 10 ppb in Pry se pond, 570 ppb in Peck pond, 
and less than 10 ppb in Barbizon. Using the Cl-based ECF, the measured concentration 
of Se in pond cells was less than that predicted by ECF. This implies that some of the 
Se was lost from the pond water by removal mechanisms such as volatilization, 
adsorption or reduction to elemental Se. 

The average influent concentration of As was 1.080 ppb in Pryse pond , 620 ppb in Peck 
pond, and 1,320 ppb in Barbizon pond (Note previous comment). Based on ECF 
calculations, the measured concentration of As in pond cells was significantly less than 
CI and had largest extent of immobilization among the trace elements. The removal 
mechanisms are similar to those identified for Se, and As tends not to accumulate in the 
water column. 

The average influent concentration of Mo was 2,790 ppb in Pryse pond, 640 ppb in Peck 
pond, and 890 ppb in Barbizon pond (Note previous comment). Based on ECF calculaltions, 
the degree of accumulation of Mo was intermediate between As and Se in most ponds. 

The above observations indicate that the reactivity of trace elements in pond facilities 
are in the order of As > Se ^ Mo with B accumulating in direct proportion to CI, an 
assumed nonreactive constituent. 



▲ Diurnal Monitoring - Evaporation Rates 

• The Peck, Pryse and Barbizon ponds were extensively monitored over 24-hour periods 
in March and August 1989 to evaluate evaporation rates with above-the-pond weather 
data as well as within-the-pond physicochemical changes. 

Diurnal monitoring of weather data was obtained with a portable Campbell Scientific 

weather station every half hour during a 24-hour period. Parameters measured were 

d speed, wind direction, gross solar radiation, relative humidity and air temperature. 



• 



win 



Solar radiation generally peaked before noon in the spring (March) and just before noon 
in the summer (August) monitorings. Relative humidity tended to be low during the day 
and increased significantly at night. The air temperature peaked at about noon and 
reached a minimum around midnight. The direction of wind was more or less scattered 
from all directions at Pryse and Barbizon ponds and predominantly from the northeast 
at Peck pond. Wind speeds averaged between 0.4 to 0.6 meters per second. 

At the Peck pond facility, two floating Class A evaporation pans were installed 
containing water within EC of 14 dS/m, and hourly evaporation rates were monitored 
over a 47-hour period from August 18-20, 1989. Evaporation during the nighttime 
contributed significantly to total evaporation. The average cumulative evaporation was 
14.6 mm. 

In addition at Peck pond, daily evaporation rates were measured with three floating 
evaporation pans containing waters of ECs ranging from 14 to 90 dS/m in the months of 
August, September and November, 1989. The EC of water in the pans were increased 
to correspond to increasing EC in the pond cells over this period. Evaporation rates 
generally decreased as salinity increased. For example, on September 2, 1989 the daily 
evaporation rate was 7.7. 6.6, and 6.3 mm per day, respectively, for pans containing 
waters of EC 14, 20 and 47 dS/m. Moreover, daily evaporation rate wnth EC 14 db/m 
water was 8.0, 6.2. 4.7, and 2.3 mm per day. respectively, for the months of August 
through November, 1989. 

page 1.11 



• Cumulative evaporation measurements from Peck pond were correlated to calculated 
reference evapotranspiration (ET ) from a nearby CIMIS weather station in Mumeta 
Farms. An ET^ correction factor (Y) was determined to correlate cumulative pond water 
evaporation rates (E) at different salinities up to EC of 61 dS/m, i.e., 

Y = 1.3234 - 0.0066 EC (dS/m) 

E= (ET.)(Y) 

• The relations between evaporation rate and dependent variables such as wind speed, 
vapor pressure differences between air and water surfaces, salinity and specific gravity 
are presented. 

• Dal ton's model was used to calculate evaporation rates from pure water and saline 
waters (EC = 14 dS/m) and these were compared to measured data. Although the 
calculated results deviated in some cases substantially at hourly intervals, improved 
trends were obtained by smoothing over longer elapsed time intervals. 

Diurnal Monitoring • Pond Waters 

• At the same time the above-the-pond weather data was being monitored at Peck, Pryse 
and Barbizon ponds, pond waters were monitored at 2-hour intervals for water tempera- 
ture, density, EC, pH, DO (Dissolved Oxygen) and Eh (redox potential). 

• Cyclical variations in several water quality parameters were observed. For instance 
variations in DO are directly related to the activity of phytoplankton and water 
temperature. Fluctuations in water temperature are dampened and lagged slightly 
behind air temperature. 

. In contrast, diurnal changes in EC, density, pH and Eh were not readily distinguishable. 

Pond Mineralog>- and Trace Elements 

• Minerals (evaporites) precipitated along the shorelines, in drying pond bottoms, and 
within the brine water column were sampled from 1987-1988. 



• 



The types of evaporites formed in the water column were strongly influenced by the 
initial chemistry of the drainage influent water and degree of evapoconcentration. The 
formation of such evaporites could be predicted by C-Salt, a brine chemistry model 
previously reported in the Interim Report. 

In contrast, evaporites formed along shorelines are subjected to extreme ranges of 
wetting and drying and tended to reHect larger mineral assemblages as saline waters are 
subjected to near air dryness. 

In the Peck. Pryse and Barbizon ponds, 1 borate, 3 chloride. 10 carbonate, and 19 
different sulfate minerals were identified. These evaporites ranged from hydrated and 
nonhydrated species, e.g., gypsum (CaS0/2H,0) and anhydrite (CaSO^, doub e sa s, 
e E bloedite(Na,SO .MgSO«5Hp)andburkeite(Na,C03'2Na,SO;.andtripe salts, 
eg'p ?yhaHte(^SO •2Cas6/M^O/2Hp)andtych.te(2Na,C03.2 



p€ige 1.12 



The following evaporites were found in all three ponds: thenardite (NajSO^), polyhalite, 
tychite, halite (NaCl), nahcolite (NaHC03), and nesquehonite (MgC0^'3Hfi). 

Since the influent waters to ponds are characterized as Na^SO^, NaCl-Na^SO^ or Na^SO^- 
NaCl type waters, the predominant evaporites formed are thenardit* and halite. In 
addition, the presence of calcium and carbonates in these waters also produce evaporites 
such as gypsum and calcite (CaCOj) in copious amounts. 

Seven evaporite samples were obtained from Peck pond and subjected to mineral 
identification and chemical analyses of redissolved salts. These samples were domi- 
nated by thenardite (Na^SO^) with morphologies ranging from fine-grained minerals 
found along shorelines to large crystals and slabs found in drying to dried pond bottoms. 
A representative water sample was also collected and chemically analyzed. 

The evaporite samples were dissolved in distilled deionized water (1 gram evaporite in 
100 ml water) and analyzed for several trace elements (Se, As, B, Mo), major solutes (SO^, 
CI, Na, Ca, Mg, K), and DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon). 

Based on the above chemical analyses the association of trace elements in the evaporites 
were ascertained. The molar ratio of 80^ to a given trace element in the evaporite was 
compared to the ratio of SO^ to a given trace element in the pond water. The results show 
that B, Se, and As were depleted in the evaporite (solid phase) as compared to the pond 
water (solution phase) while Mo was enriched in the evaporite. 

Additional studies are needed in other pond facilities to ascertain this relationship as 
well as the mechanisms oftrace element adsorption to evaporites and occlusion (trapped) 

and co-precipitation oftrace elements in evaporites. 



▲ Magnitude of Salt Load 

• An overall assessment was made on the 27 evaporation ponds with a total surface area 
of 7,070 acres that annually receive 31,900 ac-ft of subsurface drainage from about 
56,500 acres of tile-drained fields containing 810,000 tons of salts (TDS). 

• The above data were transformed into unit values. For example, 

o Each acre of tile-drained field required 0.125 ac of pond. 

O About 0.6 ac-ft/ac-yr of tile-drained effluents were collected and disposed 

into ponds. 

O About 4.5 ft/yr of tile effluents were disposed into ponds. 

O The concentration of TDS in tile effluents obtained from the field was 

about 14.3 tons/ac-yr. 

O The concentration of TDS in tile effluents disposed into ponds was about 

25.4 ton&/ac-fl. 

O The mass of TDS disposed in ponds was about 115 ton&'ac-yr. 

• The 31,900 ac-fVyr of tile effluents discharged into ponds is nearly twice that discharged 
from drains in the Grasslands Subarea to the San Joaquin River. 



pfige 1.13 



The 810,000 tons/yr of TDS disposed in ponds is about one-fourth of the estimated 3.1 
million tons/yr of salt accumulation in the San Joaquin Valley's west side. CH2M HILL's 
estimate is 743,800 tons/yr. 

Assuming the density of evaporites as 2.66 g/cm' (thenardite) the annual volume of salts 
accumulating in the ponds is about 164,500 cubic yds or an average deposition thickness 
of0.17in/yr. 

Assuming the density of evaporites as 1.28 g/cm^ (not well-developed crystalline forms), 
about 342,000 cubic yds of salt are accumulating in the ponds annually or an average 
deposition thickness of 0.36 in/yr. 

The above range of estimates on annual salt deposition in ponds indicate huge amounts 
available for possible salt harvesting or for disposal. However, the presence of toxic 
elements in the salt deposits may constrain how these salts are ultimately disposed. 



▲ Best Design and Management Practices 

• The factors and conditions sustaining evaporation and salt deposition rates were 
evaluated. Many of these factors are not readily manageable (changeable) while a few 
may be manageable such as regulating salinity levels or increasing absorbed net solar 
radiation using a dye, 2-Naphthol Green. 

• Evaporation rate of water is strongly affected by salinity of the pond water. Typically, 
salinity in ponds are lowest in the winter and spring, and highest in the summer and fall. 

• In addition to pond water salinity, formation of salt crusts on the surface of water bodies 
severely restricts evaporation rates. 

• Use of cells in pond facilities with gates to serially transfer water of varying salinities 
may sustain evaporation rates. 

• Pond water depth appears not to be a major factor influencing evaporation rates. 

• To minimize seepage of pond water into underlying ground water basins and adjacent 
lands, perimeter interceptor drains are recommended. If seepage needs to be further 
controlled, collector drains could be installed beneath the ponds. 

• Other methods of reducing seepage losses are the deposition of algal mats or burial of 
straw layers in pond bottoms. 

• The ORMAT process is being advanced to enhance evaporation rates. Due to proprietary 
constraints, the initial capital costs and effectiveness are not readily available or known. 

• The best management options and design features to sustain evaporation and salt 
precipitation rates may be overridden by considerations to make ponds safer to wildlife 
by making the ponds less attractive and reducing contaminant hazards. 



page 1.14 



INTRODUCTION 



Statement of the Problem 

Agricultural drainage and associated salinity and toxic element problems affect areas of 
the San Joaquin Valley, some moderately and others severely. The widely publicized selenium 
toxicity problems at Kesterson Reservoir heightened public awareness of this problem. 

Backlund and Hoppes (1984) indicate that 1.5 million acres (0.6 million hectares), equal 
to 27%, of the 5.6 million acres (2.3 million hectares) of irrigated lands in the San Joaquin Valley 
are affected by shallow ground water to within five feet of the land surface and that 2.3 milHon 
acres (0.9 million hectares), or 41%, are affected by water quality problems, including salinity, 
pesticide residues, nitrates and toxic elements. 

Figure 1.1 (San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP), 1989) delineates areas in 
the west side of the San Joaquin Valley having water table depths from to 5 feet and from five 
to 20 feet. Subsurface drainage in these areas began in the 1950's. The Northern (least water 
quality impact) and Grassland Subareas have opportunities to discharge their irrigation return 
flows into the middle reaches of the San Joaquin River. As water quality objectives for the river 
grow more stringent, drainage from the two northernmost subareas will need to be increasingly 

reduced. 

In contrast, the Westlands Subarea has no surface drainage outlet. Drainage waters are 
accumulating in the vadose region. The Tulare and Kern Subareas are located in a hydrologically 
closed basin with limited opportunities to discharge drainage into the lake beds. The SJVDP 
(1989) has enumerated numerous management options for drainage and drainage-related 
problems, e.g., selenium and salts. A combination of viable in-valley drainage management 
options is being sought to determine the best management practices (BMP). One of the most 
effective BMPs is source control with improved water management practices. But, even with 
source control BMPs, a residual of drainage waters containing elevated concentration levels of 
TDS and toxic elements will still need to be treated, or disposed, or both. This drainage problem 
is most critical in the Westlands, Tulare and Kern Subareas. 

In the 1970's, the Tulare Lake Drainage District constructed two evaporation pond 
facilities and Carmel Ranch one pond with a total surface area of over 3,000 acres (1200 hectares) 
to dispose of over 15,000 ac-ft/yr (18.5 million m') of drainage collected from over 27,000 acres 
(66,700 hectares) of tile-drained fields (Department of Water Resources (DWR), 1988). Between 
1981 and 1985, 24 more evaporation ponds were constructed. Most are located in the Tulare and 
Kern Subareas with several as far north as in the Grassland Subarea. 

Earlier, concern focused on potential seepage of hypersaline waters from ponds into 
usable ground waters and adjacent lands. Since the Kesterson Reservoir crisis, the emphasis has 
shifted toward potential bioaccumulation of selenium and other constituents in the aquatic food 
chain and toxicity to birds attracted to the ponds. Several ponds have either exceeded the soluble 
thresholdlimitconcentration of 1,000 |ig/L selenium or begun toexhibittoxicity problems similar 

to those at the Kesterson Reservoir. 

Aside from the highly visible concerns of bioaccumulation and hydrogeology, the 
following management-oriented questions need to be addressed to fully evaluate the efficacy of 
evaporation ponds: 

• How long can ponds effectively operate? What variables and conditions would Hmit their 

operation? 

• At what levels of salinity do evaporites begin to precipitate'' What kind of salts, how much 
and from where? How does the initial inflow chemistry influence evaporite formation? 

• What parameters affect evaporation rates of pond water? How do salinity, wind speed, 
wave action, temperature, turbidity, and thin surface salt crusts influence evaporation 
rates? 



piige 1.15 



• What changes are expected to occur in the mineralogy and chemistry of pond wasters 
subjected to cychc evaporative salinization (drying) and dilution-dissolution (wetting) of 
evaporites? 

• Which trace elements might co-precipitate with evaporites? Will salt deposits containing 
toxic trace elements need to be ultimately disposed in Class I hazardous dump sites? 

• What pond design and management practices will best sustain evaporation rates and 
precipitate salts? 

Scope of Report 

This report addresses physical and chemical characteristics and factors in evaporation 
ponds, with emphasis on seasonal pond water chemistry, water evaporation and salt accumula- 
tion, but does not address biological aspects. The previous interim report (Tanji and Grismer, 
1989) contained a literature review and synthesis on these topics. 



Oancral study ATM Boundary 

Prlnd^l Slutfy Ar«a Boundary 

_ — — Subaraa Boundarlaa 
-M^^ StraATTW and Canala 




AtBSFlELD 



Sourca: 

S«n Joaquin V»ll»y Drainage Program 



Figure 1.1 Areas of Shallow Groundwater 



page 1.16 



SECTION 2 



WATER QUALITY & CHEMISTRY OF POND WATERS 



Introduction 

This section describes the sampling methods and analysis procedures for the major 
solutes, and the trace elements including molybdenum, arsenic, boron and selenium. Trends in 
solute and trace element concentrations in the ponds are also described. 

Sampling and Measurement Procedures 

Pond Water Sampling 

Two sites at each pond were sampled using one liter Nalgene polypropylene bottles. 
Water samples were taken 2-3 meters in from the shoreline of each pond at representative 
corners. One water sample was immediately analyzed on-site for pH, temperature, DO, Eh, 
alkalinity', EC, and density (Table 2.1). The second 1-liter sample was brought to the University 
of California West Side Field Station near Five Points and filtered. The samples were first 
vacuum filtered through No. 2 Whatman filter paper to eliminate the large particles. Solutions 
were then pumped through a 6" diameter, 0.45nm membrane filter using a peristaltic pump 
(Geotech Environmental Equipment Inc). The final filtering was through a Gelman 0.45 (im 
membrane filter (Millipore filter holder) using a suction fiask. About 400 to 500 mL of the 
resulting filtrate was acidified with nitric acid to - pH 2.0 for trace element analysis. The 
remaining unacidified filtered sample was kept cold under ice and reserved for anion and carbon 
analysis. 

Table 2.1 Pond Water Sample On-Site Measurement Instrumentation 

Parameter Equipment 

O Electrical Conductivity (EC) YSI Model 32 Conductance Meter with YSI 3417 dip- 

type plastic cell and YSI 701 Temperature Probe. 

O pH, temperature (Centigrade) Markson Model 90 pH/temperature meter with Markson 

Duramark or Tefmark II pH electrode, YSI 701 
temperature probe. 

O Redox potential (Eh) Markson Model 90 pH/Temperature Meter, Markson 

redox combination platinum electrode, YSI 701 
temperature probe. 

O Dissolved oxygen (DO) YSI Model 5 IB, YSI Oxygen/Temperature probe. 

O Alkalinity Acid titration to pH 4.5 with Markson pH meter and pH 

electrode, YSI 701 temperature probe. 

O Density Fisher Specific Gravity Hydrometer, range 1.000-1.225 

and cylinder. 



Chemical Analysis 

The Applied Research Laboratories (ARL) Model 3510 Inductively Coupled Plasma 
Spectrophotometer (ICPS) instrument was used for sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), 
magnesium (Mg), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B) determination. For ICPS 
analysis, the standards (Inorganic Ventures, Toms River, New Jersey), in various concentra- 
tions, were acidified, and 5 ppm scandium (Sc) and 10 ppm bismuth (Bi) added as internal 
standards. Internal standards are also added to all acidified samples to be analyzed by ICPS. 
A standard comparable to the sample concentration was analyzed after every six samples to 
check for recovery. Intermittently, a dilute sample and a previously analyzed sample were 
inserted as samples to check reproducibility. 



'Alkalinity is presented in this report in terms of mg/l CaCO^ 

page 2.1 



• Sulfate (SO^) and chloride (CI) were analyzed using a Shimadzu HPLC (LC-6A pump, C- 

R3A Chromatopac processor, SCL-6A Controller); Ippm Limit of Quantitation (LOQ). 

• Nitrate (NOj) was determined using a Shimadzu HPLC (LC-6A pump, SPD-6AV UVA^is 

Detector, SCL-6A Controller); 20 ppb LOQ. 

• Carbon was analyzed using a Dohrmann DC-80 Carbon Analyzer; Total Dissolved Carbon 

(TDC), 1 ppm LOQ. 

• Selenium was quantified using a Technicon BD-40 Heating Block and Control Unit 

digester, with Technicon auto-analyzer sampling pump fitted with a glass sampling 
probe, proportioningpump, regulated water bath, and recorder, and a Turner Flourimeter 
Model ni with a continuous flow cuvette; Se, 1 ppb LOQ. 

Description of Field-Measured and Chemical Analysis Data 

Introduction 

A summary of results from chemical analyses of the evaporation pond water and inflow 
samples are shown in Tables 2.3 to 2. 12. The tables include data for inflow waters as well as the 
average values from each pair of sampling sites taken from each cell. In addition, the minimum, 
maximum and average values for each cell are presented. Particular emphasis in this discussion 
will be placed on the important trends and possible implications. 

Field-Measured Data 

The results of on-site analyses at Peck, Pryse and Barbizon evaporation ponds are shown 
in Tables 2.3 to 2.6. Only salinity, as reflected by the EC, fluctuated significantly with season. 

EC values of pond waters overall ranged from 8.78 dS/m at Barbizon pond to 174 dS/m 
at Pryse pond. Inflow waters were generally lower in salinity rangingfrom 7.73 dS/m at Barbizon 
pond to 33.5 dS/m at Pryse pond. The conductivity was typically lowest during the Winter 
sampling time, while maximum values have typically been found during the Summer or Fall 
seasons. Lower ECs may be due to the dilution through addition of new drainage water. The pH 
of inflow waters were between 7 and 8, while the pH of the pond waters were up to 2 pH units 
above that of the inflow. The Eh measurements indicate that with only a few exceptions, the 
waters were weakly oxidizing. Changes in Eh do not appear to be closely linked to changes in 
dissolved oxygen concentration indicating perhaps that the dominant redox couple does not 
involve oxygen as the electron donor/receptor which facilitates the electron transfer necessary 
for redox reactions. There were some differences between the alkalinity of inflow and pond 
waters which suggests, in some cases, that there was a re-equilibration between atmospheric 
COj and soluble carbonate minerals when the water was released from the confines of the tile 
drain system into the free surface water body. 

Chemical Analysis Data 

• Major Solutes 

The major solutes include Na% Ca^*, Mg=-, K-, HCO,", CI", SO/ and NO3-. The ternary 
diagrams in Figure 2. 1 show the dominance of the SO^^ anion and Na* cation in inflow and pond 
waters. Significant proportions of CI are also found at Barbizon and Pryse ponds. Only rela- 
tively low concentrations of COj^ were found. 

Fluctuations in the concentration of the major solutes may be matched with those of EC 
and among themselves which indicates that these changes over time are functions of the degree 
of evapoconcentration as well as changes in the composition of inflow waters. 

In terms of average values, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increase 
in the order Peck<Barbizon<Pryse. It may be possible that high values are linked to a biological 
factor including macrophyte, algal, and microbial activities. 

• Trace Elements 

The trace elements considered in this study include As, B, Mo and Se. The concentrations 
reported are total dissolved values for a particular element. It is important to remember that 
these elements do not exist in appreciable quantities as singular atoms. Instead, they typically 



page 2.2 



are in the oxyanion forms (that is, bound to oxygen atoms). For instance, dissolved Se may exist 
as H SeO or HjSeO^, and any of the conjugate forms. Organic methylated forms of Se may also 
be present in significant quantities tmd are included along with the oxyanions in the reported 
total concentration value. The speciation of each element is essential in conclusively determin- 
ing the fate and toxicological impact. 

Boron concentrations are generally in the order of mg/L while the other three trace 
elements are present in the order of )ig/L. An extremely high level of B (226.9 mg/L) was observed 
in cell 2 of Pryse pond in August 1988 compared to the 3 year average of 70.60 mg^. The 
conservancy (i.e., non-reactivity) of B is well illustrated by the similarity in the rise of CI" and 
B concentrations, each almost showing a ten fold increase. 

Selenium concentrations are below quantitation levels at Barbizon pond while it is 
barely detectable at Pryse pond and occasionally exceeds 1 mg/L at Peck pond especially in cell 

5. 

Arsenic concentrations greater than 1 mg/L have been detected in Pryse and Barbizon 
pond waters while the highest concentration at Peck pond is 0.95 mg/L which was found in one 
inflow sample. The highest pond water As concentration at Peck pond is 0.84 mg/L and this was 
during the time the pond cell was being drained to dryness. Concentrations exceeding 2 mg/L 
were found for Mo in many samples from all ponds. Additionally, Pryse inflow and pond waters 
showed extremely high levels of Mo rangingfrom a minimum of L40 mg/L in inflow to 24.51 mg/ 
L in cell 2. While other solute concentrations in the pond water decreased with the lowering of 
the degree of salinity as indicated by a 58.3 dS/m drop in EC, Mo increased from the previous 
season because of a greater than three-fold increase in the inflow water Mo concentration. 

It should be noted that the analytical data reported for As and Mo, as determined by the 
ICP, are consistently higher than those reported by the CVRWQCB and DWR for the period 1986- 

88 (Personal communication, D. Westcot and S. Ford). The extent of the data discrepancies 
varied depending on the element and pond. Despite the differences, the database is subsequently 
used in section 6 of this report because the error appears systematic rather than random. 

The presence of trace elements in the drainage waters and consequently pond waters 
may be associated with the distribution of trace elements in the San Joaquin Valley. Bradford 
et al., (1989a) have reported on the distribution of 20 trace elements on the basis of three geologic 
regions: the Alluvial Fan (AF) region, the Basin Rim (BR) region and the Lakebed (LB) region 
(Table 2.2). Peck pond is situated in the AF region while Barbizon pond is in the BR region and 
Pryse pond in the LB region. Of the four trace elements of interest here, the AF region is high 
inB,MoandSe. The BRregionishigh in B only, and the LB region is high in As, Band Mo. These 
observations are mostly consistent with the regional dominance of certain trace elements in 
different ponds: B is high in all ponds; Se is high at Pryse pond; As and Mo are relatively 
dominant in Pryse pond. 



Table 2^ Distribution of Trace Elements in the San Joaquin Valley 
(L = low, M = moderate, H = high) 

REGION As B Mo Se_ 

Alluvial Fan L H M H 

Basin Rim L M L L 

Lakebed H H H L 



page 2.3 



Conclusions 

The high saHnities achieved at Pryse pond through evapoconcentration of drainage 
waters presents extremely high concentrations of B and Mo in the environment. Arsenic seems 
to maintain a level concentration in the pond waters independent of the degree of salinization. 
Selenium was not detectable at Barbizon pond, and did not rise significantly in highly 
concentrated waters at Peck or Pryse ponds. The degree to which these trace elements 
accumulate in the pond waters may be calculated and the results are presented in the section on 
evapoconcentration factors elsewhere in this report. Furthermore, the accumulation of certain 
trace elements depends on the location of the ponds in the San Joaquin Valley relative to the 
geologic setting. 

Whether these levels of trace elements pose substantial risks to wildlife and waterfowl 
needs to be answered by those researchers studying the toxicological effects and concentrations 
in the biological components. 



page 2.4 



Table 2 



.3 Field-Measured Data for Seasonal Characterization of Peck Evaporation Pond Waters 



OascnpiDn 



Seaior Dae ot EC 



pH 



PwAPend 

(X 1. WkxK 

oi 1. imiow 

Ol 1 . Inflow 
OI \. imiow 
CX1 1, Inilow 
C«l 1. imiow 
C*l 1, Inflow 
C*! 1, Inlkjw 
C«« 1. Inllow 
Ol 1 . Inflow 
Ol 1. Inflow 
O* 1. Inflow 
Wntauni 



Eh 



Alkalinity DO 

|mp/ll CnftT) 



OI1 

C»« 1 

o« 1 

o« 1 

oil 1 
OR 1 
OH ^ 
on 1 
on 1 
on 1 
OH f 
Cen 1 
Unmufli 
Midniwn 



OI2 

on 2 
on 2 
OI2 
0«2 
C«I2 
OI2 
OI2 
OI2 
OI2 
0<2 
Cell2 

Uiilnitm 



OII3 

CM3 

OI3 

OI3 

OI3 

OI3 

OI3 

OI3 

OI3 

C«I3 

OI3 

013 

^■Kntawffv 

ilfaiimum 



Summe' 

f^^ 

Winter 

Spfmfl 

Summer 

Fan 

Winter 

Spilrg 

Summef 

Fal 

WIntar 

Sprinj 



Summei 

Fan 

Winter 

Sptinfl 

Surrmer 

Fall 

Winter 

Sprmj 

Summer 

Fall 

Winter 

Spring 



Summer 

Fan 

Winter 

Sprmfl 

Summer 

FaJI 

Winter 

Sfxmfl 

Summer 

Fan 

Winter 

Sprr)5 



Summer 

Fal 

Winter 

S<yir>fl 

Summer 

Fal 

Winter 

Sprmfl 

Summer 

Fal 

Winter 

Sprir>8 



11/16/86 
2/8^87 

&• 17/87 
&'V87 

11/14/87 

5/21/88 

B/wsa 

11/12/88 
2/17/B9 
S«y89 



8/2Sr86 

11/1&'86 

2/B/B7 

&'17/87 

&'V87 

11/14/87 

2«y88 

5/21/88 

8/9/88 

11/12/88 

2/17/89 

S/2(VB9 



Br2S/S6 

11/16/86 

2/6/67 

S'17/87 

a'y87 

11/14/87 

2/2088 

S^l/88 

Bwse 

11/12/88 
2/17/89 
5/2(V89 



a«V86 

11/16fl6 

2/8/87 

S/ 17/87 

a/&/87 

11/14/87 

2/20'88 

i^1/88 

a«88 

11/12/88 

2/17/89 

S««9 



11,380 
10.800 
10.920 
10.830 
10.3*0 
8.530 
8.350 
11.850 
11.530 
».7» 



«;sse 

T1,«0 

n,tM 

11.065 

14.100 

10.980 

11.426 

13.356 

9.650 

8.360 

13.190 

15.056 

14.740 

14,136 

15.650 

•,3B0 

tuae 

25.085 

17.060 
13.106 
12.700 
18,940 
24.200 
15.240 
1B.5S5 
31.000 
48.650 
46.150 

N/A 
«,7W 
4B^S0 

*ua7 

14,396 

27,900 

25,870 

20,600 

29,700 

25,300 

20,400 

31,850 

42,850 

56,550 

54,900 

109.000 

UJ»S 

se,27« 



7^3 

718 
7.56 
7,64 
7,36 
7,21 
7,20 
7.19 
7.11 
7.70 



T.7D 
?>» 

8.69 

857 

837 

8.38 

8.93 

851 

840 

832 

906 

883 

8 17 

880 

•.17 

•i£ 

...■*«*,..:... 

9.06 

8,87 
836 
841 
9.16 
888 
896 
833 
872 
695 
863 
N/A 
*M 

»J* 

9(X 

9 13 

8 96 

654 

886 

9,07 

898 

864 

868 

899 

657 

684 

tM 

9.13 



184 
226 

198 
208 
162 
240 

30 
226 
202 

119 
X 

« 
3<W 

167 
168 
214 
150 
136 
156 
56 
186 
134 
164 
157 
340 
M 
»« 
.:::.,«•..:■..■. 

122 

161 
220 
123 
136 
120 
95 
173 
132 
81 
166 
I^A 
t1 
22D 
13» 

108 
172 
206 

127 
155 
128 
100 
182 
135 
131 
212 
348 
WO 
»« 
t67 



282 
265 
275 
276 
300 
250 
265 
250 
270 
216 

> 

« 
SIS 
300 

ac4 

113 
175 
168 
170 
110 
123 
175 
163 
110 
116 
110 
105 

tos 
«« 

138 

125 
123 
148 
170 
116 
147 
188 
160 
205 
328 
336 
MA 
»18 

tx 

WB 

108 
168 
175 
168 
1S3 
170 
195 
255 
268 
395 
433 
109 

we 

«33 
218 



y 

7.7 
7.4 
7.3 
56 
8.4 
6.8 
7.6 
64 
6.0 



8*" 
M 

7* 

N/A 

90 

88 

84 

107 

96 

106 

103 

11.7 

10 1 

12.6 

S4 

i.4 

^^£ 

10.2 



N/A 

8.7 

10.5 

8.3 

12.6 

10.5 

11.6 

9.9 

7.6 

107 

13.1 

N/A 

TA 

«.1 

104 

N/A 

8.7 

10.9 

7.9 

85 

9.7 

10.7 

64 

66 

9.7 

12.3 

7.6 

t£ 

«4 

8.2 



y 

19 
16 
19 
26 
15 
11 
25 
21 
17 



» 

19 

N/A 
16 
17 
20 
27 
13 

9 

26 
23 

14 

15 
21 
' * 
27 
» 

N/A 
17 
17 
20 
27 
13 
9 
26 
23 
14 
16 
N/A 

27 



N/A 
17 
16 
20 
28 
14 
8 

25 
23 
14 
16 
22 
» 



i:No»ampte 



y Ha anaV^ed 



: Out of operaion 



N/A: Not available 



page 2.5 



Table 2.4 Field-Measured Data for Seasonal Characterization of Peck Evaporation Pond Waters 



OMcnpton Saator 


Dneo' 


EC 


P^^ 


En 


AJUiint, 


DO 


T 






Meafiuremem 


(umhoi/cm) 




(mV] 


(mo/li 


(maT) 


rci 


PMkPond 


















CM* 


Summe' 


ft%^ 


25.010 


898 


118 


120 


N/A 


N/A 


CI* 


Fat 


11/16/86 


27.t»0 


895 


171 


171 


83 


17 


C«I4 


Wimer 


2/8/B7 


19.820 


8.58 


207 


1S5 


10.5 


17 


OI4 


Sixmg 


i'l?*? 


21.950 


861 


IX 


183 


8.8 


20 


Cat* 


Summaf 


8/ifl7 


44.800 


895 


144 


223 


It. 4 


28 


Ca** 


Fal 


11/14/87 


M/A 


N/A 


N/'A 


N/A 


NA 


N/A 


(M* 


Wintat 


a^o-sa 


" 


•- 


" 


•* 


— 


" 


(M* 


Spfins 


S/21/8e 


— 


•* 


•* 


— 


** 


•* 


C*I4 


Summar 


Bwse 


" 


•^ 


— 


" 


•* 


•* 


(M* 


Fall 


11/12/88 


" 


** 


" 


•• 


*• 


•" 


<M* 


Wintaf 


2/17/89 


— 


•• 


•• 


•• 


*• 


•• 


C-* 


Sprmo 


S/2(VS9 


- 


ua' 


11a 


" ■■■'«() 


ei' 


•• 


Hntnum 






'wee 


^y—-- 


ItaifanuB 






♦MDC 


•-•B 


vr 


223 


lt.4 


3* 


mm 






n,?»» 


.. ..:.,:.•*».:: 


.:.::i..::.:.:::.,»»*, ,....:. 


....... iro :.:: 


•>7 


» 


ots 


Summer 


8/2&'B6 


».505 


886 


116 


158 


N/A 


N/A 


Gens 


FaJ 


11/16W 


37.6X 


922 


147 


2X 


85 


18 


CX5 


Winief 


2*87 


28.250 


884 


194 


206 


93 


IB 


C^5 


Sfxmfl 


5/17/87 


30.800 


865 


139 


248 


83 


20 


o«s 


Summer 


a'S«7 


48.700 


8.93 


ISO 


255 


10 1 


28 


0*5 


Fa» 


11/14/67 


34.400 


877 


141 


296 


99 


13 


Cats 


Winter 


2/2<V8e 


25.700 


901 


lOB 


273 


10 9 


9 


c«>s 


Spr»>g 


wi/Be 


44.150 


8.90 


180 


290 


9-0 


26 


C««6 




a«'88 


59.950 


8 73 


127 


355 


6 4 


22 


Cats 


Faf 


11/12/8* 


43.450 


8 70 


157 


34B 


9.1 


14 


Cats 


Wimer 


2/17/89 


50.300 


852 


202 


370 


12.7 


16 


Ca«5 


Sprrig 


5«V89 


84.650 


905 


276 


658 


101 


22 


Uritmm 






♦M5C 




toa 


tM 


«.4 

12.7 


« 


Itaitaim 


27% 


eM 


» 


iMMM 






«3»7 


>^ 


«t 


ao7 


■: >ii!-;^^.- 


mmmm^. 


Cal6 


Sp"ifl 


VI 7/87 


9.345 


857 


132 


103 


5.2 


21 


Cal6 


Surrwnef 


a-VB? 


19.125 


909 


124 


96 


8.8 


28 


Ca«6 


Fan 


11/14/87 


15.620 


8,87 


124 


lie 


9.0 


13 


Cal6 


Winter 


2/20/88 


11.4X 


925 


102 


123 


11.9 


8 


Ca<E 


Sp">8 


S^l/88 


17.500 


877 


174 


120 


95 


27 


Ca«6 


SufT¥ner 


8*38 


21.725 


898 


114 


118 


99 


23 


CaCE 


Fan 


11/12/88 


35.350 


9 51 


117 


220 


8.2 


12 


CalE 


Wifitet 


2/17/89 


26.950 


875 


182 


178 


M2 


16 


Ca<E 


............. .............,......„.-..?P^ 


Sfio/ea 


36.600 


959 


244 
VB 


188 
•5 
220 


9.5 
SS 

13.2 


21 


MMmum 




■■■■'"■■"'«""■■ 


Mutmum 


K,coe 


»S9 


244 


2e 


lte«) 






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page 2.6 



Table 2.5 Field-Measured Data for Seasonal Characterization of Pr>se Evaporation Pond Waters 



DwaplKxi 



Daeoi EC 

Mea&uremeni (timho&'cm) 



pH 



Eh 
|mV; 



AKuUiniTy 



DO 



T 



PryM Pend 

CXI 1. Inflow 
Call 1. Mlow 
Cain, imiow 
Call LMtoH 
Call 1. Inflow 
Call 1. Inflow 
Call 1. Inflow 
Call 1 . Inflow 
Call 1. Inflow 
Call 1, Inflow 
Call 1. Inflow 
Call 1. InfKm 



tkidmun 



Cain 


Cain 


Call 1 


Call 1 


Cain 


Call 1 


Call 1 


Cell 1 


Call 1 


Call 1 


Cain 


Cain 


MMnwn 


Mutmum 


mm 


Call 2 


Call 2 


C«I2 


C«I2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Call 2 


Mntfflvn 



Summer 


»2&S6 


31.560 


762 


Fall 


11/1VB6 


X.980 


7.49 


Wimar 


2/7/67 


27.770 


8 13 


Spring 


i^^&lB^ 


30.200 


7,41 


Summef 


s/i/ei 


33.50C 


7,40 


Fall 


11/14/87 


27.400 


744 


WnMr 


i/xyea 


27,100 


7.51 


Sprtng 


W1/88 


33.100 


7.52 


Summer 


B««e 


28 800 


7 46 


Fall 


11/12/88 


31.000 


7.54 


wmtat 


2/11/89 


22.700 


6,71 


Spring 


Sfioiea 


».700 


7.61 






s.-ne 


f.Tt 






3D,S(S 


a.i3 






a»^i 


7M 


Summer 


B/26/86 


53.390 


652 


Fail 


11/1S/86 


46.750 


850 


Wlolar 


2/7/67 


25.6*5 


6 67 


Spnnfl 


5/16/87 


43.300 


833 


Summer 


&4.'e7 


63.150 


850 


Fall 


ii/i*/e7 


46,750 


8,36 


Wmier 


Z/20I&S 


41,150 


651 


Spnng 


br2i ISB 


47.250 


672 


Summe- 


ej^6B 


56,550 


856 


Fall 


.ii/i2''8e 


63 200 


875 


Wint6r 


2/11/39 


43.50C 


633 


....Sprt"B...^ 


5/2(V89 


53.050 
3SJU6 


873 






»S3 






«iSOi> 


•.78 






MM>1 


•.54 


Summer 


V26/K 


129.0S0 


e.34 


Fall 


11/15/86 


70,745 


8.24 


Wmer 


2/7/87 


35,850 


8 76 


Spnng 


^'16/67 


86,000 


863 


Summef 


8/*/87 


N.A 


N,'A 


Fall 


11/14/87 


N/A 


N/A 


WMw 


Z/20/B8 


65.150 


8,S2 


Spnng 


5/21/88 


71.400 


8.77 


Summer 


B«Be 


174.700 


7,42 


Fall 


11/12/88 


N/A 


N/A 


Wintar 


2'11/89 


N/A 


N/A 


Spnnj 


5/20/88 


133.350 


827 






36jae 


7/«S 






1T4.TO0 


•JR 






«,«• 


•.44 



162 


92C 


Y 


y 


166 


810 


98 


18 


198 


840 


10,0 


16 


134 


606 


64 


23 


206 


816 


62 


26 


215 


810 


8.2 


20 


181 


676 


76 


18 


206 


836 


7,3 


27 


159 


866 


86 


26 


136 


840 


80 


22 


122 


770 


10.6 


12 


256 


sas 


7.4 


26 


12t 


770 


'9 ' 


,:.....--,„. ^^ 


sc 


«2Q 


It 


» 


iw 


A39 


e 


It 


169 


636 


N/A 


N/A 


139 


693 


81 


16 


192 


598 


12-6 


16 


146 


566 


66 


23 


183 


590 


50 


27 


IBS 


70S 


136 


19 


152 


735 


67 


20 


96 


626 


50 


29 


79 


656 


109 


29 


134 


806 


21 


22 


115 


726 


13.2 


12 


240 


780 


16,1 


27 


7» 


SBi 


2 


12 


»4Q 


•M 


t6 


2» 


1S2 ,„,: 


:-..,: :.;.«''5 ...... 


. » 


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114 


1^60 


N/A 


N/A 


140 


890 


61 


14 


178 


535 


107 


13 


123 


423 


42 


22 


N/A 


NiA 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N.A 


N/A 


N/A 


137 


666 


64 


21 


154 


530 


7.8 


X 


■150 


1.560 


45 


32 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


167 


833 


39 


29 


'■ao 


«23 


4 


13 


1«7 


1IW 


11 


32 


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•48 


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page 2. 7 



Table 2.6 Field-Measured Data for Seasonal Characterization of Barbizon Evaporation Pond Waters 



Oseapiton 



Dale 0* EC 



PH 



Eh 
(mVi 






DO 



T 

j:cj_ 



Baitijan Pond 

IrrtOix. OH C 
mtloo. OH C 
Inllow. C^t C 
Inflow. Can C 
Irrfloo. OK C 
Inllow. CXI C 
Inllow. C*' C 
MIow. 0«C 
Inllow. C«liC 



Oil A. Wee 
Oil A. Was 
Oil A. Wsei 
C«ll A. Was 
OH A. W«e 
OiiA. Wse 
Oil A. Wea 
on A. W«s 
Cell A. Wea 
Oil A. Wes 
CXI A. Wee 
OH A. Was 
ilttfirirntjtt 
ifaiiinuai 



OIIB. Eas 

Oil B. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
Oil B. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 
OIIB. Eas 

UaidnuHfi 



OH C. Easi 
OliC. Easi 
Oil C. East 
OIIC. Easi 
one. Ear 
OIIC. Easi 
OIIC. Easi 
Call C. Easi 
Call C. East 
Call C. East 
Call C. Ea« 
CallC.Eaci 



Spnnfl 

Summer 

Fall 

Winler 

Spring 

Summef 

Fall 

Wmtar 

Spring 



Summar 

Fall 
Winter 

Spnnj 

Summe' 

Fall 

Winlar 

Spnng 

Summer 

Fall 

Winter 

Spring 



Summer 

Fall 

Writer 

Spring 

Summer 

Fall 

Winter 

Spnng 

Summer 

Fail 

Winter 

Spnng 



Sunvner 

Fall 

Wner 

Sp»w9 

Surrmer 

Fall 

Writer 

Spnng 

Summer 

Fall 

Wnter 

Spring 



i;No»anpi« 



11/1V87 
2/21/86 
hr22IS8 

a/ityge 
ti/i:ve£ 

2/11/89 
SSI/89 



8/26/66 

11/1V86 
2/7/87 

BliJB7 

ii/ive7 

2/21/86 
5.22 86 
a/1CV86 
11/13/86 
2/11/89 
i21/89 



VX/SB 

11/1V86 

2/7/87 

&il&'87 

ai4;e7 

11/15/87 
2/21/86 
5^22/86 
ft'1CV86 

ll/ll'8e 
2/11/89 
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Il/IVB" 
2/21/88 
S22/86 
a/1(V8£ 

11/11^ 
2/11/eS 
5/21/89 



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7.730 
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7.730 
8.880 
8.365 

23.39C 
29.500 

11.0*0 
26,100 
29.200 
20,800 
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24 100 
39,900 
22.300 
14.360 
31.500 
IIJMO 
88 .800 
34,280 

21.850 

27.900 
21.530 
27.700 
27.200 
23 600 
16.450 
26.200 
46.300 
19.710 
12.910 
X 

1S.»tO 

48400 

20.900 
26.00C 
18.770 
21.400 
25.200 
24.200 
16.000 
25.500 
21.500 
11.170 
8.780 
9.320 
8,780 
28,000 
\»3» 



7.43 
7.83 



7.36 
7.33 
733 

733 
7.49 

9 10 
905 
7.49 

8 70 

9 43 
862 
847 

8 96 
8,86 
7.72 
8.58 
861 
7.48 
8.43 
8.6S 

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9 16 
862 
892 
932 
880 
9 07 
9.26 
940 
885 
907 

X 

8j82 

8.40 
BAS 

9.10 

9.oe 

859 
898 
921 
878 
9.21 
9 07 
9 42 
896 
9.22 
825 
8.8£ 
>/<3 
8M 



212 

186 



125 
276 

125 
S76 
18S 

153 
166 
179 
177 
151 
173 
■83 
161 

16 
124 

75 
243 
■83 
843 
127 

147 
172 
182 
168 
148 
172 
•15 
163 
23 
118 
94 
I 

■IB 
182 

tzs 

147 
153 
150 
157 
149 
171 

5 
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•132 
113 

85 
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•Mi 
880 
1»8 



530 
510 



70S 

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S10 

705 

801 

660 
665 
665 
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355 
500 
520 
396 
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525 
545 
315 
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8«S 
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BarbUon Evaporation Pond: ANIONS 
C03 ♦ HC03 



Barbizon Evaporation Pond: CATIONS 
Na^K 



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Figure 2.1 Ternary diagrams of the relative concentrations of major cations and anions in evaporation 
pond waters (meq/1 basis) 



page 2.15 



SECTION 3 



DIURNAL MONITORING OF PONDS 



Introduction 

Diurnal studies were carried out at Peck, Pryse and Barbizon evaporation ponds in 
March and August 1989. The studies comprised bihourly analysis of water samples from the 
ponds, and half-hourly data acquisition of weather conditions. Water samples were collected 
from one site at Barbizon and Pryse ponds, while Peck pond was sampled at two sites in March 
and three in August. Of the three samples at Peck pond during the August study, one was taken 
from a pool containing brine shrimp (BS), and another from a brackish pool containing salts (SP). 
The third sample was taken from an adjacent cell containing less saline water. 

Methodology 

Water Che mistr\' Parameters 

Pond water was collected at regular intervals at selected locations in 1 L Nalgene 
polyethylene bottles. Chemical parameters (Table 3.1) were measured and recorded on-site. 



Table 3.1 Instruments used for measuring Pond Water Chemical Parameters in Diurnal Study 

O Temperature and pH Markson Model 90 pH/Temperature meter, Markson 

combination electrode 

O Eh Markson Model 90 Meter with Markson Pt electrode 

3 DO YSI Model 54A Oxygen Meter and Probe 

a Conductivity YSI Model 32 Conductivity Meter, YSI 3417 Dip-Type 

Cell, YSI 400 Series Temperature Probe 

Density Fisherbrand specific gravity hydrometer range 1.000- 

1.225 and cylinder 



Evaporation Parameters 

Diurnal monitoring for evaporation data at the agricultural drainage evaporation ponds 
was accomplished using instrumentation developed by Campbell Scientific. The principal 
device was a CR-21 battery-operated data-logger connected to various weather instruments 
described later. 

Five parameters were monitored every half hour during a 24-hour period. First, wind 
speed was measured with a Met One 014 wind cup anemometer. Wind direction was monitored 
using a Met One wind vane. Gross solar radiation was measured using a Lichor pyranometer 
from Campbell Scientific. Relative humidity was measured using a Physical-Chem instrument 
also from Campbell Scientific. Additionally, temperature was recorded using a Campbell 
Scientific temperature probe. 

Instrumentation was set up on a pipe and stand cross-bar (Figure 3.1). The wind-speed 
and the wind-direction instruments were placed 2 m above ground level on one of two cross-bars. 
All other instruments were attached onto the other cross-bar 1 m above ground level. Due to the 
extreme heat of the summer monitoring trip, the temperature probe was kept shaded. The CR- 
21 unit was kept out of direct sunlight and also protected from dew-point moisture by wrapping 
it in a plastic bag. 



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Incoming data to the CR-21 data-logger is processed by pre-programmed macro pro- 
grams which transform the direct readings into the desired units. Data stored in the data logger 
is transcribed into a computer spreadsheet at the end of each 24 hour monitoring period. 

Observations 

Pond Waters 

Figures 3.2-3.5 and 3.9-3.13 show the pond water diurnal data for March and August, 
respectively. All data tables for the above figures are in Appendix A Cyclical variations in 
several of the water quality parameters were expected and observed in most cases. For example, 
variations in dissolved oxygen are directly related to the activity of aquatic organisms including 
algae (Barbizon) and plankton (Peck BS). Fluctuations in water temperature are dampened and 
slightly lagged those of air temperature. None of these observations were unexpected. 

The electrical conductivity (EC) of the waters did not remain constant even though they 
were corrected for temperature. The EC data also did not exhibit a wave-like nature. 
Interestingly, the EC did not change dramatically with temperature in Peck SP which contained 
water in equilibrium with a vast amount of evaporite minerals (mainly mirabilite). The response 
to temperature change in a saturated solution may increase with larger temperature changes or 
may be simply a slow process. Diurnal changes in density, pH and Eh were not readily 
distinguishable and often suffered from 'noise'. 

Above Pond 

Figures 3.6-3.8 and 3.14-3.16 show the above pond diurnal data for March and August, 
respectively. All data tables for the above figures are in Appendix A. Solar radiation generally 
peaked before noon in the March study, but peaked just afler noon during the August study. 
Relative humidity tended to be low during the day and significantly greater at night. The air 
temperature behaves cyclically, peaking at about 2 to 4 PM and reaching a minimum around 3 
to 6 AM. The wind direction data is evenly scattered at all angles except at Peck where the wind 
predominantly came from the northeast. Wind speeds averaged between 0.4 to 0.6 m.s '. 



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page 3.17 



CIMIS Weather Data 

The CIMIS hourly weather data from stations near to the evaporation ponds under 
investigation (Peck, Pryse, and Barbizon) for 24-hour periods in March Eind August, 1989 are 
included in ^pendix B. Fluctuation of conditions recorded in the CIMIS data include: tempera- 
ture from 7 to 17°C; relative humidity from 40 to 75%; wind speed from 1 to 4.8 mile/hr (usage 
of mile&^r rather than m/s is necessary for calculations. However, all records of data are in m/ 
s); and vapor pressure from 3.2 mbar to 9 mbar. This suggests that the evaporation rate will also 
vary similarly. 

Floating Evaporation Pan Data 

Table 3.2 shows the evaporation measurements from floating evaporation pans located 
at Peck evaporation pond with different salinity levels. CJenerally, evaporation rate decreases 
as salinity increases due to a salinity effect on reducing water surface vapor pressure. Figures 
3.17, 3.18, 3.19 and 3.20 show that the evaporation rate from water having an EC=14dS/m was 
higher than water with an EC of 30 dS/m. Additionally, water with an EC of 30 dS/m has a higher 
daily evaporation rate than water of 47 dS/m. Figure 3.21 shows that the cumulative evaporation 
from the floating pans was of the order EC= 14 dS/m > =30 dS/m > =47 dS/m >ET^. Table 3.3 
contains the 2- day hourly evaporation loss (mm/hr) and cumulative loss (mm) from the floating 
pans having an EC of 14 dS/m. The data shows that the evaporation rate during night time 
contributed significantly to the total evaporation. Figures 3.22 to 3.26 show the effect of the 
individual weather parameters on the potential evapotranspiration (ET^) and the average 
evaporation rate from the floating pans containing saline water (EC= 14 dS/m) at Peck pond. 
Average measured daily evaporation rates of agricultural drainage decreased from 8.0 mm/day 
in August to 2.3 mm/day in November for the 14 dS/m water (Figure 3.27). 

Potential Use of CIMIS ET^ as a Predictor o f Evaporation Rate from Evaporation Ponds 

California's network of CIMIS weather stations could provide a useful tool for predicting 
evaporation rates firom evaporation ponds. Cumulative evaporation measurements from Peck 
pond were well correlated to CIMIS-calculated ET^ as reported from the nearby station at 
Murrietta farms. An ET__ correction factor was calculated for cumulative evaporation rates at 
different salinity levels from data collected during August through October, 1989. This 
correction factor was then correlated to the EC of the water up to 61 dS/m (Figure 3.28). The 
result is a simple linear model with an r-squared value of 87% which yields an ET^ correction 
factor from input of the drainage water EC: 

Y = 1.3234 - 0.0066 EC (dS/m) 

where Y is the ET^ correction factor. 

The actual relation might be not linear, but this relation could be used for making 
ballpark estimates within the range of salinity used, and it illustrates the potential for 
developing such a model. 

Figures 3.29 a, b and c show the calculated (using the above model) and the measured 
evaporation rates as well as the cumulative rates (Figures 3.30 a, b and c) from the floating pans 
containing different salt concentrations (14, 30, and 47 dS/m) at Peck pond. The agreement 
between the measured and the predicted rate is within acceptable limits. 



page 3.18 



Table 3J2 Daily evaporation rat* from the floating evaporation pans at Peck pond 



Date 


Pan A (mm/day) 


Pan B (mm/day) 


Pan (mnVday) 




EC = i4dS/m 


EC = 14dS/m 


EC = 14 dS/m 


8/11/89 


11.20 


9.00 


9.60 


8/12/89 


9.70 


11.20 


9.90 


8/15/89 


7.30 


7.30 


7.90 


8/17/89 


7.40 


7.20 


7.80 


8/19/89 


5.50 


7.50 


7.00 


8/24/89 


7.10 


8.10 


8.60 


8/25/89 


7.20 


5.20 


7.90 


8/26/89 


7.80 


8.50 


8.10 


8/27/89 


6.70 


7.00 


7.30 




EC = 14 dS/m 


EC = 30 dS/m 


EC = 47 dS/m 


9/1/89 


6.70 


6.40 


4.70 


9/2/89 


7.70 


6.60 


6.30 


9/3/89 


6.60 


6.90 


6.50 


9/4/89 


6.90 


6.40 


6.30 


9/5/89 


7.10 


6.60 


7.50 


9/6/89 


10.10 


13.30 


13.30 


9/7/89 


4.80 


1.70 


3.60 


9/8/89 


6.80 


6.60 


4.20 


9/9/89 


6.90 


7.10 


6.80 


9/12/89 


4.90 


na 


4.70 


9/13/89 


5.20 


na 


4.10 


9/14/89 


5.30 


na 


5.20 


9/15/89 


5.10 


na 


5.40 


9/23/89 


5.50 


na 


3.20 


9/24/89 


7.00 


na 


5.70 


9/25/89 


4.60 


na 


4.80 


9/26/89 


4.30 


na 


4.90 




EC = 14 dS/m 


EC = 59 dS/m 


EC = 90 dS/m 


11/2/89 


2.10 


1.20 


2.20 


11/3/89 


2.20 


2.00 


1.70 


11/4/89 


1.60 


2.10 


2.60 


11/5/89 


3.20 


2.10 


2.70 


11/6/89 


3.54 


1.60 


2.50 


11/7/89 


3.40 


3.20 


3.70 


11/8/89 


1.00 


1.40 


1.40 


11/9/89 


1.80 


1.70 


1.40 


11/10/89 


1.80 


1.40 


1.80 


11/11/89 


2.20 


1.90 


1.80 


11/12/89 


2.40 


2.40 


1.00 


11/13/89 


2.10 


1.80 


2.10 



EC values ± 10% 

na : Data not available 



page 3.19 



Table 3.3 Cumulative and hourly evaporation from Peck floating pans (EC = 14 dS'm) for August 1ft- 
29, 1989 



Date 


Time 


Elapsed 


Pan A 


PanB 


Average 


Pan A 


PanB 


Average 






Hours 


(mrrVhr) 


(mnVtir) 


Pans AS B 


cum(mm) 


cum. (mm) 


PansA&B 


8/18/89 


1600 





0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


8/18/89 


1700 


1 


0.46 


0.16 


0.31 


0.46 


0.16 


0.31 


8/18/89 


1800 


2 


0.29 


0.18 


0.24 


0.75 


0.34 


0.55 


8/18/89 


1900 


3 


0.53 


0.41 


0.47 


1.28 


0.75 


1X2 


8/18/89 


2000 


4 


0.73 


0.39 


0.56 


2.01 


1.14 


1.57 


8/18/89 


2100 


5 


0.71 


0.39 


0.55 


2.72 


1.53 


2.13 


8/18/89 


2200 


6 


0.75 


0.46 


0.61 


3.47 


1.99 


2.73 


snsm 


2300 


7 


0.59 


0.36 


0.48 


4.06 


2.35 


3.21 


8/18/89 


2400 


8 


0.51 


0.32 


0.42 


4.57 


2.67 


3.62 


8^9/89 


100 


9 


0.36 


0.37 


0.37 


4.93 


3.04 


3J9 


8/19/89 


200 


10 


0.11 


0.36 


0.24 


5.04 


3.40 


4.22 


8/19/89 


300 


11 


0.44 


0.34 


0.39 


5.48 


3.74 


4.61 


8/19/89 


400 


12 


0.39 


0.37 


0.38 


5.87 


4.11 


4.99 


8/19/89 


500 


13 


0.68 


0.52 


0.60 


6.55 


4.63 


5.59 


8/19/89 


600 


14 


0.57 


0.60 


0.59 


7.12 


5.23 


6.18 


8/19/89 


700 


15 


0.48 


0.77 


0.83 


7.60 


6.00 


6.80 


8/19/89 


800 


16 


0.27 


0.62 


0.45 


7.87 


6.62 


7.25 


8/19/89 


900 


17 


0.42 


0.57 


0.50 


8.29 


7.19 


7.74 


8/19/89 


1000 


18 


0.11 


0.18 


0.15 


8.40 


7.37 


7.89 


8/19/89 


1100 


19 


0.00 


0.12 


0.06 


8.40 


7.49 


7.95 


8/19/89 


1200 


20 


0,00 


0.04 


0.02 


8.40 


7.53 


7.97 


8/19/89 


1300 


21 


0.00 


0.03 


0.02 


8.40 


7.56 


7.98 


8AI9/89 


1400 


22 


0.00 


0.02 


0.01 


8.40 


7.58 


7J99 


8/19/89 


1500 


23 


0.00 


0.07 


0.04 


8.40 


7.65 


6.03 


8/19/89 


1600 


24 


0.00 


0.11 


0.06 


8.40 


7.76 


8.08 


8/19/89 


1700 


25 


0.07 


0.18 


0.13 


8.47 


7.94 


8.21 


8/19/89 


1800 


26 


0.16 


0.25 


0.21 


8.63 


8.19 


8.41 


8/19/89 


1900 


27 


048 


0.37 


0.43 


9.11 


8.56 


8.84 


8/19/89 


2000 


28 


0.11 


0.23 


0.17 


9.22 


8.79 


9.01 


8^9/89 


2100 


29 


0.23 


0.52 


0.38 


9.45 


9.31 


9.38 


8/19/89 


2200 


30 


0.39 


0.35 


0.37 


9.84 


9.66 


9.75 


8^9/89 


2300 


31 


0.11 


0.36 


0.24 


995 


1.02 


5.49 


8^9/89 


2400 


32 


0.07 


0.37 


0.22 


10.02 


10.39 


1021 


8/20/89 


100 


33 


0.37 


0.45 


0.41 


10.39 


10.84 


10J2 


8/20/89 


200 


34 


0.91 


0.57 


0.74 


11.30 


11.41 


11J6 


8/20/89 


300 


35 


0.48 


0.46 


0.47 


11.78 


11.87 


11^ 


8/20/89 


400 


36 


0.23 


0.23 


0.23 


12.01 


12.10 


MM 


8/20/89 


500 


37 


0.04 


0.23 


0.14 


12.05 


12.33 


12.19 


8^0/89 


600 


3fi 


0.16 


0.34 


0.25 


1221 


12.67 


1244 


8«)/89 


700 


39 


0.21 


0.30 


0.26 


12.42 


12.97 


12.70 


8«)/89 


800 


40 


0.64 


0.34 


0.49 


13.06 


13.31 


13.19 


8/20/89 


900 


41 


0.45 


0.80 


0.63 


13.51 


14.11 


13J1 


8/20/89 


1000 


42 


0.14 


0.22 


0.18 


13.65 


14.33 


13.99 


8/20/89 


1100 


43 


0.14 


0.12 


0.13 


13.79 


14.45 


14.12 


8/20/89 


1200 


44 


0.13 


0.14 


0.14 


13.92 


14.59 


1426 


8/20/89 


1300 


45 


0.21 


0.06 


0.14 


14.13 


14.65 


14J9 


8/20/89 


1400 


46 


0.07 


0.07 


0.07 


1420 


1472 


14.46 


8/20/89 


1500 


47 


07 


0.19 


0.13 


1427 


14,91 


14i9 



page 3.20 



5» 




O 

ce 

a 

cs 
> 




. September 
Date 



Figure 3.17 Daily evaporation in relation U. 
given dates in September, 1989 



the salinity level in Peck floating pans and ET during the 



page 3.21 



I 



ee 



e 
o 

s 

o 
a 




' September 
Date 



Figure 3.18 Trend of daily evaporation in relation to the salinity level in Peck floating evaporation 
pans and ET during the given dates in September, 1989 



page 3.22 



14 



9 



P 
e 

I 



12 



10 



■ 










1 


' 1 ■ i ■ t 




, , 














• 
















• 


• 












1 




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1 
< 


^^ 


'f 


1 


fJ 


r. < 


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> 

! ■ 


1 

1 


/ 






1 




llr7 




■ 














u 




• 


• 












I 


' 




• 



4 5 

■ September 

Date 



Figure 3.19 Daily evaporation in relation to the salinity level in Peck evaporation floating pans and 
ET for the period Sept. 1 through Sept. 9, 1989 



ptige 3.23 



10 



es 



e 
o 

•9m 

s 

o 
a 
ee 
> 



a UdSIm 

♦ 30 dS/m 
■ 47 dS/m 

• ETo 




Date 



Figure 3^0 



Trend of daily evaporation to the salinity level in Peck evaporation floating pans and ET 
for the period Sept. 1 through Sept. 9. 1989 



page 3.24 





70 — 








-^ 




■ • " 




1 






60 — 












-rt 


i 


7/ 

—X- 




I 


50 — 










f\ 




/ 

-t 




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40 - 




■: 




~~Jl /' 






o 
































ft 1 / 








g 










/// A 

















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a 










/y/ / 








ee 










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> 










/ /I / 










H 


30 - 








JM~-~- 








— 


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T717 
































■*i 




















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9 




















B 




















s 




















o 


















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20 - 


//, 




















10 


J//j^ — 






- ( 1 • 
D — 14 dS/m 
















_A. - lOflS/m 
















D — 47 dS/m 
















9 — ETo 

, 1 . 1 . t . . 






o' ' ■ 

1 


2 3 


4 
Scptemti 

Date 


5 6 7 8 9 










»«r 









Figure 3^1 



^ ,„i»Hnn to the salinitylevel in Peck floating evaporation pans 

Cumulative evaporation in re ahon ^^^f^^^^l^ gg 
and ET for the period Sept. 1 through Sept. 9. 1989 



page 3.25 



I 

s 



H 
1 

m 

I 

r 




Time 



Figure 3.22 Effect of air temperature on hourly ET^ and average evaporation rates from Peck floating 
evaporation pans (EC = 14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989 



e 

s. 



1 



e 
e 
•a 
m 

1 



<2 




Figure 3.23 



I Time 

Effect of Bolar radiation on hourly ET^ and average evaporation rates from Peck floating 
evaporation pane (EC = 14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989 



p€ige 3.26 




I 



Tir 



Figure 3^4 Effect of relative humidity on hourly ET^ and average evaporation rates from Peck float- 
ing evaporation pans (EC = 14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989 



£ 3 

e 
o 



S 2 



* 1 



1 



i 



Wmd SvXtnH) 
Evip. {naoAu) 



TnTrrrrrnTnTrnTTTTiT 



I 



liM 



Figure 3^5 Effect of wind speed on hourly ET and average evaporation rates from Peck floating 
evaporation pans (EC = 14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989 



page 3.27 



I 



B 
8 
O. 

s 

73 

i 

I 



c 

h 
O. 
U 


a 
> 




Time 



Figure 3^6 Effect of vapor pressure on hourly ET^ and average evaporation rates from Peck floating 
evaporation pans (EC = 14 dS/m) for the period August 19-20, 1989 




Augiut 



ScpUmber October 

month 



November 



Figure 3J27 Average daily evaporation rate from 14 dS/m Peck floating evaporation pans for four 
months in 1989 



page 3.28 



1.18 


- 


I '-■- ■• - » - 

o 


T -r r- 




1 I-T . r- 1 . ,- 

\ \ 




..., , 




; 










; 


1.13 


— 










— 


L. 


- 






\ 


\ \ 




- 


O 


'_ 


-^ 




\ 


\ \ 




■ 


U 


_ 


"- — 






\ \ 


\ 


_ 


^ 1.08 


— 


^^ 






\ \ 




\ - 


c 
o 


- 


^ 










- 


mH 


- 




\ 




\ ^^ 




- 


^ 1.03 


— 




\ 




\ "^ ^ 




— 


t. 


- 






\ 


\ 


~^ _ 


- 


c_ 


" 


\ 






\ \ 




>• 


5 0.9B 


_ 


X 






\ \ 




_ 


o 


- 


\ 


\ 




\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 




- 


UJ 

0.93 


^ 










^ 




, 




\ 




\ \ 




. 




- 






\ 


\ \ 




• 


0.88 


— 


1 • 1 1 






\ \ \ 

. 1 • • . 1 t . 


— i- 


1 



20 40 60 

EC of Drainage Water (dS/m) 



80 



Figure SJ28 Regression of ET_^ correction factor on EC of drainage water 



page 3.29 



m 
5 



£ 
t 

e 

^* 
t 

I 

m 
> 



■ 
•a 



£ 

■ 

e 





I 

m 
> 



m 



£ 
t 

c 
o 
V 

t 

I 




Figure 3^9 CEMIS ET^ measured and calculated daily evaporation from Peck floating evaporation 
pans with different sabmties using the ET__ correction factor 



page 3.30 




Figure 3^0 




StpUtnbtr, 1»«S 

Date 



Cumulative CIMIS 
floating evaporation pans 



ET and measured and calculated daily evaporation from Peck 



with different salinities using the ET correction factor 



page 3.31 



SECTION 4 



APPLICATION OF EVAPORATION RATE MODELS 



Lntroduction 

Evaporation ponds are one means of disposing saline water from tile drains. Physical, 
chemical, and biological factors affect evaporation parameters and can either increase or 
decrease the efficiency of the ponds. These parameters include air and water temperatiire, solar 
radiation, humidity, wind speed and direction, wave action, water color, turbidity, salinity 
chemical composition, organic content and water depth. Wind speed, air and water temperature 
and water saHnity are the most obvious factors that affect the evaporation rate, where the others 
are less clear, yet just as important in the evaporation process. 

The water flux to the atmosphere is a physical process and is proportional to the vapor 
pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above. A kiiowledge of the effect of 
climatic factors on the vapor pressure leads to an estimate of the evaporation rate from the water 
surface. Many models have been suggested and tested to estimate the evaporation rate from 
water surfaces. 

Estimation of Evaporation Rates 

Dalton's model (1834) is used widely, and the equation is of the form: 



E = %)(es-ea) 



where: 



E = evaporation rate [L/T] 

es = vapor pressure in the film of air next to the water surface [M/T'L^] 

ea = vapor pressure in the air above water surface [MJT'U] 

K\i) = an empirical coefficient that depend on barometric pressure, wind velocity, 
and other factors [T»L* M] 

This equation has been used tc calculate the evaporation rate from pure water surfaces 
as well as from the floating pan containing saline water (EC = 14 dS/m) at Peck pond. The terms 
of the equation are estimated as follows: 

• ea is used from CIMIS weather data (Table 4.1) 

• es is determined by the Janson (1959) equation as 



where: 



es = ew (1 - 0.0005373 S) 



ew = vapor pressure of pure water obtained from List (1951) 
S = the salinity concentration (g/kg) 



The values of ew and es are presented in table 4.1. To estimate the wind coefficients, 
ftp.), the wind speed and evaporation rate slopes found by Moore and Runkles (1968) are used 
to construct new relations between the wind speed and wind coefficient [T'L^/M] (Figure 4.1). 
Calculated and measured data are presented in Table 4.1. 

The comparison between calculated sind measured evaporation rates at the same elapsed 
hour shows some discrepancy (Figure 4.2), while the comparison between the calculated ones at 
certain elapsed hours with measured data after 10 hours shows slightly improved agreement 
(Figure 4.3). Smoothing the measured data by excluding some of the above-range values led to 
good agreement between the calculated and measured data (Figure 4.4). This agreement is due 
to the heating time (6-10 hours) needed for water molecules to break the water tension and 
escape from the water surface. More data is needed for verification. 



page 4.1 



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Figures 4.5 and 4.6 show the effect of wind speed on evaporation rates. Generally, higher 
wind speeds (up to 6 mile/hr) result in greater evaporation . This is because the wind is 
preventing the build-up of a diffusion barrier (Moore and Runkles, 1968). Figures 4.7 and 4.8 
show the evaporation rate as a function of concentration as affected by wind speed, air 
temperature and humidity. At high humidity a smaller vapor pressure difference is present 
which in turn reduces the evaporation rate. Salinity decreases the vapor pressure of the film 
next to the water surface. Therefore, evaporation decreases as salinity increases. Evaporation 
decrease with increasing specific gravity is plotted in Figure 4.9. 

Lakshman (1975) studied the influence of wind and water temperature profiles overthe 
water surface on evaporation rate using the following Dalton's based formula: 



E = N LP-* (es - ea) (1) 



where: 



and 



E is the evaporation in inches/hr 

N is the mass transfer coefficient 

U is the wind speed in mile/hr 

es is saturation vapor pressure in mbar 

ea is the vapor pressure of air at 2 m in mbar. 



N = [((3.9 X 10^) m«=n/{(m+l)'«(2m+l)o^] (C/2)'^°'(P/A)''2 (2) 



where: 

m is the wind profile exponent 

fi is the thickness of the turbulent boundary layer in meter 

P is the perimeter of the water body in feet 

A is the water surface in square feet 

For smaller bodies of water (e. g. sloughs and small reservoirs), the transfer coefficient 
(N) can be simplified to give; 

N = (2.62 X 10^) (P/Ay 2 (3) 

A comparison between some of the computed (eq. 2) and experimental values of N in the 
experiment is in the following table: 

Study Area (sq. fl.) N computed N experimental Error 

1 Blucher Dugout 6.3 x lO' 

2 Lake Hefrier 1.0 x 10» 

3 Wascana Lake (1969-1970) 2.3 x 10' 



The empirical equations 2 and 3 need to be verified with San Joaquin valley conditions 
in which the evaporation rate from the evaporation ponds can be estimated accurately. 



1.42 X lO-* 


1.5 X 10^ 


5.30% 


9.25 X 10-^ 


9.74 X 10-* 


5.03% 


0.879 xlO^ 


0.964 X 10^ 


8.80% 



page 4.3 



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LOS - 



JS a(M 

u 

G 



(Ltt3 - 



ao: 



aoi 



«Ud ^wMl wtnl cMtTklcil 



(■Ik/kr) 
2 
i 
10 
16 



(■■/■lwr*kr) 
C.019 
0.032 
•MS 
L063 



y = 1.2869e-2 + 3.1733e-3x R*2 . 0.999 



■■ 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 r- 

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 



Wind speed (mile/hr) 
Figure 4.1 Wind coefficient in relation to wind speed 




EUpMidhn 



Figure 42 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water as well as from saline water (EC =14 dS/m) 
compared to the measured rate from the saline floating evaporation pan at Peck pond, for 
the period August 19-20, 1989 



page 4.4 



0.6 



OJ 



0.4 



OJ 



0.2 



0.1 - 



0.0 



I I I : > I i 

CaJculaled evap. from pure water 
Calculated evap. from saline water 
average measured evaporation 
from Ibe saline water 




Elapsed hrs 



Figure 4.3 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water as well as from saline water (EC =14 dS/m) 
comp>ared to the measured rate from the saline floating pwn at Peck pond for the period 
August 19-20, 1989 (different data comparison) 



0.6 



OJ 



0.4 - 



r- OJ 



0.2 J* 



0.1 



0.0 




Elapsed hrs 



Figure 4.4 Calculated evaporation rate from pure water as well as from saline water (EC =14 dS/m) 
compared to the measured rate from the saline floating pan at Peck pond for the period 
August 19-20, 1989 (partially excluded data) 



page 4.S 



I 



A 



1.2 



1.0 



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u 
u 

o. 

tfl 
« 

u 

e 



§ 0.6 



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> 



0.4 



0.2- 



Y = .0180 X 

Coefficient of Determination = 93.24 

S^ = 0.3^3 
yx 



• • 



• • 



5 10 15 20 

Vapor Pressure Difference (millibars) 



25 



Figure 4JJ Evaporation in relation to vapor pressure difTerences between air and water surface at a 
wind speed of 2 miles per hour (Moore and Runkles, 1968) 



page 4.6 



u 

V 

a 

u 

c 



c 
o 



o 

> 



1.2 



1.0 



0.8 



0.6. 



0.4 



Y = .0294 X 

Coefficient of Determination 

S^ - 0.716 

yx 



96.69 






• • 



-L 



5 10 15 20 

Vapor Pressure Difference (millibars) 



25 



Figure 4.6 Evaporation in relation to vapor pressure difference between air and water surface at a 
wind speed of 6 miles per hour (Moore and Runkles, 1968) 



page 4.7 



1.00 



,90 - 



,80 



o 
u 



O 






70 



,60 - 



,50 



.UO 



,30 




100,000 200,000 300,000 

Concentration (parts per million) 



Figure 4.7 Relative evapK)ration rate [Evaporation from a saline solution to that of evaporation from 
distilled water (EJEJ] in relation to wind speed smd salt concentration at an air 
temperature of 76°F and 60% relative humidity (Moore and Runkles, 1968) 



page 4.8 



1.00 



.90 _ 



.80 - 



,70 - 



o 



u 
o 



ot: 



,60 



,50 



.40 - 



,30 




100.000 200,000 

Concentration (parts per million) 



300,000 



Figure 4£ Relative evaporation rate [Evaporation from a saline solution to that of evaporation from 
distilled water (E/Eo)] in relation to wind speed and salt concentration at an air 
temperature of 76°F and 80% relative humidity (Moore and Runkles, 1968) 



page 4.9 



4 













1001 


, _ 








" 


|90 
1 

Z 80 

e 

1 

leo 


c 


m- 1 ; 1 ■ 


1 

V 


1 




9 

e 

7 
6 


*> 






\ 








1*0 


- 




\ 






5 








\ 








t 40 


- 




\ 


. 




4 


i 

• 30 


m 


• - Evopororior frorr, Bonrtfvillf brmtt 




\ 




5 


S 




I - Evoporolion from tro»oirr (Bonythor, 


I95E] 


\ 






Uo 


• 


• - Vopor prtnurn over GffOI Soif Loke 
(Oickfron ff t 0) • I96S) 


bnrvet 


\ 




2 


> 
Ik; 

10 








• 


\* " 


K 







1 1 ' 


1 








s; 


1. 


DO 


1.05 110 (15 120 


1 25 


1 SO 


1 




Avtrog» ftp*C(f*c orovtty 









Figure 4.9 EfTect of specific gravity on evaporation of brine (LJ. Turk, 1970) 



page 4.10 



I 



SECTION 5 



MINERALOGY OF PRECIPITATES 



Introduction to Pond Evaporite Mineralogy 

This section presents data on evaporite minerals identified by x-ray powder 
diffraction CXRPD) analysis. Data on two types of samples are reported: (1) precipitated salts 
collected from shorelines in ponds and (2) salts formed within the pond water column. Evaporite 
mineral samples were obtained during monitoring trips (1) in the winter of 1987 at Barbizon 
pond, (2) winter, spring and fall of 1987 and spring 1988 at Peck pond, and (3) winter and fall of 
1987 and spring of 1988 at Pryse pond. The types of minerals precipitated in the water column 
are strongly regulated by the initial chemistry of the inflow drainage water and degree of 
evapoconcentration. Most of the mineral samples obtained came from shorelines on which salts 
precipitated as the pond waterline receded and hence are not predicted by the brine chemistry 
model unless the pond water is taken to dryness. 

Analytical Procedure 

Mineral identification was performed with a Diano XRD 8000 X-ray diffractometer 
equipped with a strip chart recorder. Cu K-a radiation was used to determine the diffraction 
maxima of the sample. Samples were scanned between 2 and 60' 26. Minerals were identified 
using a computer program that converts the 20 values to diffraction spacings and compares the 
d-spacings of the sample to known mineral d-spacings. Known mineral diffraction spacings were 
compiled from the Mineral Powder Diffraction File, Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction 
Standards (JCPDS). All minerals reported had both the 100% intensity peak identified and at 
least three d-spacing matches with known minerals. Gypsum I and II, and Loewite I and II 
denote identification through differing d-spacings. 

The samples have been subjected to a fairly rigorous and thorough analysis. The 
minerals identified probably account for 99% of the salt samples. The dominant minerals reflect 
the composition of the water as expected for shoreline salts and the wide variety of other 
components suggest that evaporite formation is a non-competitive process at the shoreline. 

Pond Mineralogy 

Table 5.1 presents the evaporite minerals identified in field samples collected from the 
shorelines and, when avtiilable, from within the water column of the three ponds. At all three 
ponds, halite (NaCl) was the only chloride evaporite identified, nahcolite (NaHCO,) and 
nesquehonite (MgC033HjO) were the only carbonate evaporites identified, and arcanite (K,SO^) 
and thenardite (NajSO^) were the only sulfate evaporites identified. Other minerals detected 
were present in only one or two ponds and not in the third pond. 

In Peck pond, the most diversity in evaporites occurred during the winter, after 
evaporation had been the greatest and before water was seasonally added to the pond. The least 
diversity in evaporites occurred during the spring, after new water (either rainfall or agricultural 
drainwater) diluted the pond waters. 

Four minerals are ubiquitous in Peck pond: burkeite (Na2C03»2NajSO^), halite (NaCl), 
mirabilite (Na,SO/ 10H,O) and thenardite (Na,SO^). Bloedite (Na,S0/MgS0/5H,0), gypsum 
(CaS0/2H,0), nahcoHte (NaHCO,) and polyhalite (K,SO/2CaSO/MgSO/2HjO) were iden- 
tified in two of the three samplings. 

Pryse pond did not follow the same pattern of diversity as at Peck. The most diversity 
in Pryse occurred during winter. The least diversity occurred during the fall. One reason for this 
might be that Cell 2 does not receive new water right away, hence this cell remains dry longer 
than would be expected. When the cell does receive water for dilution, the water comes late in 
the season. 

Three minerals are ubiquitous in Pryse pond: burkeite, halite, and thenardite. Bloedite, 
gypsum, loeweite (2Na,SO/2MgSO/5HjO), mirabilite, nahcolite, polyhalit* and sodium car- 
bonate sulfate (NajCOj'Na^SO,) were identified in two of the three samplings. 

p€ige S.I 



Table 6.1 Evaporite Minerals Identified at Barbizon, Peck and Pryee Evaporation Ponds Between 
August 1986 and May 1988. 



Evaporite Type/Name 


Chemical Formula Barbizon 


Peck 


Pryse 


Borates 










Borax 


Na,Bp,«10H,O 




• 


• 


Chlorides 










Bischofite 


MgCl,«2HjO 


• 




• 


Halite 


NaCl 


• 


• 


• 


Sylvite 


KCl 


• 






Carbonates 










Aragonite 


X-CaCO, 


• 




• 


Burkeite 


Na,C03»2NajSO, 




• 


• 


Calcite 


P-CaC03 




• 




Magnesite 


MgC03 




• 


• 


Nahcolite 


NaHC03 


• 


• 


• 


Nesquehonite 


MgC03«3Hp 


• 


• 


• 


Soda (Natron) 


Na,CO3»10Hp 








Sodium Carbonate Sulfate 


Na^COj'Na^SO, 






• 


Trona 


Na,C03»NaHC03»2H30 




• 


• 


Tychite 


2NajC03 • 2MgS0/ NBjSO^ 


• 


• 


• 


Sulfates 










Arcanite 


K,SO, 


• 


• 


• 


Bassanite 


2CaS0/H,0 






• 


Bloedite 


Na,S0/MgS0/5H,0 




• 


• 


Burkeite 


Na,C03«2NajSO, 




• 


• 


Georgeyite 


KjSO/5CaSO/HjO 




• 


• 


Glauberite 


Na,SO/CaSO, 






• 


Gypsum I 


CaS0/2H,0 




• 




Gypsum II 


CaSO/2HjO 


• 


• 




Kieserite 


MgSO/HjO 


• 






Langbeinite 


K,S0/2MgS0, 






• 


Loewite I 


6Na,S0, • 7MgS0, • 15H,0 


• 




• 


Loewite II 


2Na,SO/2MgSO/5HjO 


• 




• 


Mirabilite 


Na,SO/10H,O 




• 


• 


Polyhalite 


K,SO/2CaSO/MgSO/2HjO 


• 


• 


• 


Sodium Carbonate Sulfate 


Na,C03«Na,S0, 






• 


Syngenite 


K,SO/CaSO/HjO 




• 




Thenardite 


Na,SO, 


• 


• 


• 


Tychite 


2Na,C03 • 2MgS0/ Na,SO, 




• 


• 


Vanthoffite 


3Na,S0/MgS0, 


• 




• 



page 5.2 



Most of the minerals ubiquitous at Peck and Pryse evaporation ponds are also found at 
Barbizon. Bloedite, gypsum, halite, loeweite, mirabilite, polyhalite and thenardite are the major 
evaporite minerals in these ponds. This reflects the fact that the aqueous chemistry of the ponds 
are similar. 

Differences between the ponds are observed in the evaporites which only form in one of 
the ponds. While no quantitative tinalysis was done, the minerals discussed below probably did 
not occur in large quantity. Sylvite (KCl) and arcanite (K,S04) were unique at Barbizon. This 
reflects the fact that Barbizon evaporation pond has a greater percentage of potassium (of total 
cations) than the other ponds. 

• Peck had three unique minerals: calcite (CaCO,), georgeyite (K,SO^ • 5CaS0/ H^O) and 
syngenite (K,SO/CaSO/HjO). Calcite is a surprise. The other two minerals suggest 
that proportion of Mg is low in this pond relative to other ponds, hence fewer evaporites 
incorporate Mg. As evapoconcentration occurs, K and Ca precipitate as georgeyite and 
syngenite. 

• Pryse had several unique minerals: soda [natron] (Na^CO,* lOH^O), anhydrite (CaSO^), 
bassanite (2CaSO/HjO), glauberite (NajSO/CaSO,) and langbeinite 
(KjS0/2MgS0p. Soda is probably a result of biologically increased partial pressure 
of carbon dioxide. At the time soda was identified, five other carbonate or bicarbonate 
minerals were also identified. Anhydrite and bassanite seem to be occurring instead 
of gypsum. The hypersaline conditions of Pryse may increase the solubility of gypsum. 
As seawater is concentrated, glauberite precipitates, so this mineral is not unexpected. 
Glauberite would probably occur in other ponds if they were as saline as Pryse. 

• Of all the minerals identified, only two minerals (halite and thenardite) were found 
in all ponds. 

Salts which precipitate in the pore waters at the sediment-water interface and the 
overlying water column have also been collected. The morphologies between water column and 
shoreline salts are easily distinguishable most likely because of the different forms that result 
from one sample being constantly submerged while the other possibly dries out. Such 
morphological differences, while indicating mineralogical differences, do not necessarily trans- 
late into compositional differences. For instance, while thenardite (Na,SO^) and mirabilite 
(Na^SO^ • lOHjO) are two different minerals, they comprise the same number of moles of Na and 
SO per mole of the mineral and differ only in the hydration status. The dehydration of mirabilite 
yields thenardite, and this occurs simply by leaving mirabilite in free air. 

In general, water column samples form much larger crystals and eventually coalesce into 
salt slabs. This is in contrast to the shoreline salts which are powdery and fine. Shoreline salts 
generally form as a result of wetting and drying along the shore as a result of wave action and 
are usually of the dehydrated form. Salts forming this way may then be wind-blown further up 
the bank and hence avoid redissolution. 

A Note Concerning Mineralogic Nomenclature 

Typically, the number of moles of an element in a mole of mineral is expressed as a lump 
sum. For example, the common mineral thenardite has the chemical formula Na^SO^ and is 
composed of two moles of Na and one mole of SO,. Likewise, minerals with more than two 
components such as glauberite are usually found in reference materials such as the JCPDS 
Mineral Powder Difraction File as Na,Ca(SO,)j. However, for the purpose of stressing the point 
that these are mixed salts rather than entirely unique minerals, they are being expressed as 
combined simple salts so that, for example, glauberite is given the chemical formula 
Na,SO/CaSO,. Water (H^O) is not considered to be a simple salt and is always expressed in 
combination with a mineral (e.g., mirabilite, Na,SO/ lOH^O). 



page 5.3 



SECTION 6 



TRACE ELEMENT ACCUMULATION IN POND WATERS 



Introduction 

During the evaporation of agricultural drainage waters from evaporation ponds, the 
solutes are separated from their solvent, water. Some solutes are subject to solute transport 
which physically carries them away from the evaporation pond usually to the groundwater table, 
but the distribution of the majority of solutes is due to chemical partitioning. The chemical 
partitioning of a solute is related to its suite of reaction mechanisms and relative reactivity. The 
elevated concentrations created by evapoconcentration is conducive to driving many reactions. 
For some reactions, however, a favorable concentration gradient may not be enough. 

This set of calculations investigates the general reactivities of certain solutes (arsenic, 
selenium, boron and molybdenum) which have been highlighted as priority toxicants. Their 
reactivities are referenced against chloride ions which are assumed to be non-reactive conservative 
constituents of the evaporation pond waters. Though the study does not pinpoint specific 
reactions, it is important to determine which solutes causing toxic concern arebeing retained in 
the water column and hence, pose an exposure risk to wildlife and waterfowl. 

Evapoconcentration 

This is the term given to the process by which the ratio of solute to water solvent is 
increased by the removal of the solvent and retention of the solute. The change in the ratio is 
termed the Evapoconcentration Factor (ECF) and may be calculated for changes over time or 
progressive cells. 

ECF Formulae 

The ECF formulae have been derived to provide an estimate of the levels of an element 
in reference to chloride which is assumed to be a non-reactive component of the solution. 

Figure 6.1 shows the equations that are used to calculate predicted values. The Time- 
Dependent ECF (TDECF) applies to changes in the degree of salinity which occur over time. The 
Multi-Cell ECF (MCECF) applies to differences in the degree of salinity which occur in multi-cell 
evaporation ponds. The notation m^^ generally represents molar concentration (M) but if the 
volume of water is assumed constant, then it may be expressed in number of moles. 

Calculations with the TDECF and MCECF which are reported here are applied to data 
obtained between fall 1986 and summer 1988. By virtue of the assumptions in building the 
formula, the TDECF calculation only provides values which are independent of conditions in- 
between the two time points of interest. In contrast, the MCECF calculation utilizes averaged 
data over the time period of interest. Although Pryse comprises two cells, the second cell was 
saturated with respect to solid phases too often to allow the assumption of non-reactive chloride 
ions. Hence, the MCECF formula was applied only to Peck pond. 



(1) Time-Dependent ECF 



(2) Multi-Cell ECF 



ECFd) 



%«..« 



= ECF(t) X m^djj) 



m 



ECF(n) 



Cl,n 



m. 



m 



predpcn 



Cl,n=0 
= ECF(n) X m 



x/i=£) 



Figur« 6.1. Formulae for calculating predicted concentrations during evapoconcentration. 
(n = cell number, 7 = element of interest, t = time) 



pttge 6.1 



Verification Example for Time-Dependent ECF Formula 

The conditions shown in figure 6.2 have been met satisfactorily at all three evaporation 
ponds studied. The example above shows that if the inflow ClTVace Element Ratio is not the 
same as the pond water ratio (case B), the increase cannot be expressed in an ECF which would 
preclude the use of ECFs as a prediction tool. In contrast, the increase due to inflow addition (case 
A) can be described by an ECF (case C) meaning that deviations in observed values from the ECF- 
predicted values can be interpreted as reactivity of the trace element. 



Conditions for Time Dependent ECF 

• Ratio of CI to TE in inflow water must approximate that in the 
receiving waters 

• Ratio of CI to TE in inflow water must be approximately constant 
over the time period of interest 


A. 


1000 
10 


AddlOOCI.ITE 


1100 
11 


In case B, the TE appears to 
have decreased in proportion 
to the CI while, in fact, both of 












the constituents have been 
conserved. 


B. 


1000 
10 


Add 500 CI, 1 TE 


1500 
11 


In case A where the inflow 
water CI to TE ratio is the 
same as that in the receiving 












water, the change In CI and 
TE can be reflected bv an 


C. 


1000 
10 


ECF = 1.1 


1100 
11 


ECF factor as shown in case 
C. 















Figure 6JJ. Conditions necessary for Time-I>ependent ECF calculations. 



Example Calculation Using TD-ECF 

An example calculation usingtheTD-ECFisdonehereusingthefollowingparameters: 



Initial Conditions 

Date 11/15/86 

[CI] 17,500 mg/1 

[B] 43.18 mg/1 



Final Conditions 

8/9/88 

139,133 mg/1 
237.2 mg/1 



TDECF = 



[ai 



[Ql 



'final ^ 139,133 ^ ^ 



initial 



17,500 



95 



ptige 6.2 



[B] ^^ , = TDECF * [B], .^ , 
predicted initial 

= 7.95* 43.18 mga 
= 343.30 mgf\ 

The above calculation demonstrates the use of the TDECF formulae in the calculation 
of a predicted boron concentration for Pryse CELL 2 SE. The calculated result for this example 
is shown on the appropriate chart in figure 6.5. The primary variables in this calculation are the 
initial and final dates because these are what determine the ECF value. 

Extended Application of TDECF 

The results presented in this report focus on the changes in pond water concentrations 
between the initial and final sampling dates. However, a more extensive approach is possible 
by altering the final date used in the TDECF calculation. An example of this extension is shown 
in the figure below in which lL/15/86 is retained as the initial date, and the TDECF calculation 
is performed on data firom Pryse Cell 2 SE. 



400 



E 



300 - 



c 
o 
^ 200 

CO 



c 

0) 

o 

c 
o 
o 

c 
o 

o 

CD 



100 




Observed [B] 
Predicted [B] 





00 

in 



00 



00 

in 



CO 
00 

o 



00 
CO 

^— 

in 



CO 
00 

00 



00 

o 

CNI 

in 



Figure 6.3. Results of TD-ECF Calculation for Pryse Cell 2 SE using multiple final dates. 

Figure 6.3 indicates that B is well conserved through the seasons with the exception of 
the summer 1988 case in which the concentration is many times higher than previous values. 



page €.3 



i 



Results 

TDECF: The results of the analysis for As, Se, B and Mo are shown in figures 6.4 and 
6.5. Arsenic is clearly very reactive (indicated by values less than the limit of quantitation) 
especially at Barbizon and Peck ponds. Selenium (not detected at Barbizon pond) is slightly less 
than predicted at Peck pond. The peculiar comparison that is portrayed at Pryse pond probably 
arises from physical fluxes of Se rather than chemical fluxes. Boron is generally non-reactive 
and is predicted fairly well by the TDECF. The TDECF calculation also indicates that Mo is 
reactive for the selected conditions. 

For the TDECF formula to be valid, one assumption that needs to be approximately true 
is that the ratio of chloride to solute be the same at both instances of time (i.e., initial and final). 
This has been verified with a maximum change in the ratio to be 69%. Since no change is 
unreasonable to expect, that value of 69% is deemed acceptable given the objectives of the 
calculation. 

MCECF: The calculations for Peck pond (figure 6.6) generally support the observations 
of the TDECF results. However, molybdenum clearly shows non-reactive behaviour which 
suggests that it tends to leave and return to the water column according to season. Further 
calculations using fall dates as initial and final time points should be able to verify this. Finally, 
the prediction of boron appears to be excellent. There is a high level of confidence in these results 
because they correspond well with the results that were previously calculated for a single year 
(Fall 1986 to Summer 1987). 



Conclusions 

The evapoconcentration factors may be used in predicting solute concentrations assuming 
that the solute exhibits non-reactive behaviour. Deviations from the predicted trend may be 
taken as indications of reactivity. The actual significance of the deviations depends on the data 
set used in the calculations. 

Boron has been found to accumulate in the water column whereas selenium appears to 
undergo a partial removal from the water column. Arsenic tends not to accumulate in the water 
column while molybdenum undergoes a cycle of removal and restoration according to seasons. 



page 6.4 



020 




& S 



T- CM CO irt 

S § S 1 





•^ CM eo ift 

I 5 S 1 




Figure 6.4. Predicted (□) and observed( - )conc.ntrations of ar^e^c and sele^^^^^ 

right) Barbizon, Peck and Pryse evaporation ponds. The TDECF method .8 used. 



page 6.5 




S 8 3 




Si & & & 





»- evj CO ui 



S & & 8 




Fiirure 6J> Predicted ( D ) and observed ( ■ ) concentrations of boron and molybdenum for (from lea 
Figure 6J.. J^e^c^c^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ evaporation ponds The TDECF method ,b used. 



page €.6 



E_ 

c 
S. 

I 

i 

o 
o 



E 



c 
o 
o 




5 ^ CM CO «r »« 

s "o) ^ 7 ^ a> 

c o o o o o 




5 •»- Ol CO ^ _ 

C o o o o o 




5 »- CVJ CO ^ »« 

= ^ T5 "5 ^ o> 

c o o o o o 




5 T- c«j CO ^ 

^ ^ ^ *a> o *> 
c o o o o o 



Fipire 6.6. Predicted ( O ) and 



observed ( • ) concentrations of arsenic, selenium, boron and 



.molybdenum for Peck evaporation pond. The MCECF method .s usee 



page 6. 7 



SECTION 7 



TRACE ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH EVAPORITES 

Introduction 

Trace element concentrations in evaporite minerals forming in agricultural evaporation 
ponds were examined by dissolving and analyzing evaporite minerals collected from Peck Pond 
cells 2 and 3. The mineralogy of the salt crusts was found to be dominated by thenardite, a Na^SO^ 
mineral. The evaporites displayed a number of differing morphologies including fine-grained, 
slabs, and large crystals. 

Methodology 

The elemental compositions of 7 representative evaporite deposits were determined by 
dissolving 1 gram of the mineral in lOOmL of distilled deionized water. The evaporites were 
observed to dissolve completely except for a dark colored residue consisting of particulate organic 
material which was present in some of the samples. The solutions were all filtered through a 0.45 
^m membrane filter prior to chemical analysis. The chemical analyses for the dissolved salts are 
shown in Table 7. 1. 

Molybdenum was analyzed using a Perkin -Elmer 2100 Graphite Furnace (GFAAS) with 
deuterium background corrector and a palladium hydroxylamine matrix modifier. Prior to 
analysis, samples were acidified to pH 2 using nitric acid. To ensure accurate performance of the 
instrument, replicate samples were run every ten samples eind recovery tests every twenty 
samples (Loya, 1989). Arsenic and selenium were analyzed by Hydride Vapor Generation Atomic 
Absorption Spectrophotometry (HVGAAS), while boron was analyzed using Inductively Coupled 
Plasma Spectrophotmetry (ICPS). 

Results 

Sodium and sulfate were the major chemical constituents comprising the salts which 
confirm the results of the x-ray diffraction analysis. To examine if the trace elements become 
enriched or depleted in the solid-phase versus their concentration in the pond waters, the ratio 
of SO^ to trace elements in both the solid-phase and solution-phase were plotted (Figure 7.1). The 
chemical composition of the solution phase was taken as the mean concentrations in Peck Pond 
Cell 2 SE. The diagonal line shown in Figure 7.1 represents chemical compositions where the 
ratio of SO^ to trace element in both the solid phase and solution phase are equal. Above this Une 
is a region where the solid phase is depleted relative to the solution phase. Below this line, the 
trace element is enriched in the sohd phase relative to the solution phase. The diagram shows 
that As, B and Se are depleted in the solid-phase, while Mo concentrations were nearly equal, 
to slightly enriched in the solid-phase. 

Table 7.1 Trace elements associated with pond evaporites (values in nmolea/L) 





Fine Salt 


SO, 
76,251 


Se 

0.61 


As 


B 


Mo 


DOC 


Na 


Ca 


Mg 


K 


a 


Peck 2 


0.33 


200 


43 


3,239 


119.226 


4,620 


6,560 


290 


6,310 


Peck 2 


Si^ 


88.115 


0.04 


0.52 


92 


20 


439 


161,005 


237 


897 


139 


4,972 


Peck 


Long 


89,673 


0.04 


0.25 


57 


17 


179 


156,929 


14 


740 


243 


3.787 


Peck 


S\ab 


86.237 


0.11 


0.11 


273 


37 


770 


157,439 


445 


2,601 


176 


11,144 


Peck 


Long 


87,255 


0.16 


0.08 


121 


23 


370 


160,496 


267 


880 


252 


4,659 


Peck 3 


Sl^ 


92,102 


0,43 


0.04 


24 


5 


335 


166,101 


158 


610 


1 


499 


Peck 3 


Cfydais 


87,398 


0.08 


0.07 


70 


8 


663 


144.701 


3,519 


400 


1 


3,021 


Peck2SE 


Walef 


135,858 


7.22 


641 


1,471 


10.2 


6,083 


297,565 


12,444 


14,568 


818 


75,430 



piige 7.1 



These results represent only one pond and one type of evaporite mineral (thenardite) 
and therefore the results of these preliminary studies should not be extrapolated to other sites. 
More work is currently underway to determine the mechanisms responsible for the distribution 
of trace elements between the solution and solid phases. Future studies will be expanded to 
include different evaporite minerals from a number of different locations. 



O 

Q 

o 



10' 



10' 



10- 



10* : 



10^ 



10' 



O S04/Se 

• S04/B 

D SO4/M0 

A S04/AS 



SOLID PHASE 
"DEPLETED IN 
TRACE ELEMENT 



i 




DISTRIBUTION 
COEFRCIENT r 1 



O^ 



o 

A 

o 



SOLID PHASE 

ENRICHED IN 
TRACE ELEMENT 



10 



lO'' lo-" 

SOLUTION PHASE RATIO 



10* 



10- 



Figure 7.1 Trace Elements Associated with Evaporites from Evaporation Ponds 



page 7.2 



SECTION 8 



MAGNITUDE OF SALT LOAD 



Introduction 

In the previous interim report (Tanji and Grismer, 1989), a brine chemistry 
model (C-Salt) was utilized to simulate the sequence and quantities of salts precipitating 
as pond waters are evapoconcentrated up to a 50-fold decrease in volume. This report 
takes another approach in assessing the magnitude of salts accumulating in 
evaporation ponds. The primary data used herein are from the Central Valley Regional 
Water Quality Control Board (Westcot et al., 1988) and the Department of Water 
Resources (1988) that were summarized in the interim report. 

Unit Values 

The 27 evaporation ponds have a total pond surface area of about 7,070 acres 
annually receive about 31,900 ac-fl of subsurface drainage from about 56,500 acres of tile- 
drained fields containing about 810,000 tons of salts (TDS). These data are transformed 
into unit values as follows: 



unit tile effluent = ^^ yin^"^^*" = 4.51 ft/yr (8.1) 

7 070 ac 



The unit tile effluent is the average annual surface depth of drainwater disposed 
into the ponds. 

unit pond surface = -g -^^ — = 0.125 (8.2) 

56 500 ac 

The unit pond surface is the acres of pond surface for each acre of tile-drained 
field. 

unit field drainage = ^^ 56 500 a^^' = ^'^^ ac-fVac-yr (8.3) 

The unit field drainage is the average annual quantity of subsurface drainage 
water collected from the fields and disposed into ponds. 

. „^^ ^ _ , , 810 OO P tons/yr , . o * / ro a\ 

unit TDS from fields = — rg con o^ = ^"^-^ tons/ac-yr (8.4) 

56 500 ac 

This unit TDS is the average annual quantity of salts collected in the tile 
effluents from the fields. 

810 000 to ns/yr nc a i i t\ lo c\ 
unit TDS into ponds, concentration basis = s^gooac-fVyr ^ tons/ac-ft (8.5) 

This unit TDS gives the average annual salt accumulation discharged into the 
ponds. 

, , . 81 OOP ton&/>T ,,C4 / /fi c^ 

unit TDS into ponds, weight basis = q q-jq ^c ^ tons/ac-yr (8.6) 

This unit TDS is the average annual weight of salts discharged into the ponds. 



page 8.1 



Magnitudes Discharged into Ponds 

The 31,900 ac-ft/yr of subsurface drainage discharged into ponds is nearly 1.9 
times the 17,000 ac-fVyr of groundwater discharged from drains in the Grasslands 
Subarea into the San Joaquin River (CH2M HILL, 1988). The 810,000 tons/yr of TDS 
disposed into ponds is about 5.8 times the 139,400 tons/yr of TDS in the ground water 
discharged from drains in the Grassland Subarea into the San Joaquin River. CH2M 
HILL (1988) gives smother estimate of 743,800 ton&'yr disposed into ponds. 

The 810,000 tons/yr of TDS disposed in ponds is about 26% of the estimated 
3,100,000 tons/yr of salt accumulation in the San Joaquin Valley's west side (CH2M 
HILL, 1988). 

In addition, the quantities of trace elements disposed into ponds are about 595 
tons/yr of boron, 4,340 Ibs/yr of selenium, 7,900 Ibs/yr of arsenic, and 44 tons/yr of 
molybdenum. 

Accumulation in Ponds 

As noted in the interim report, the average measured seepage rate from the 
evaporation ponds is about 1.0 ac-ff ac-yr. 

Net Volume Evaporated = 31 900 ac-ft/yr - (1.0 ac-ft/yr )(7 070 ac) (8.7) 

= 24 830 ac-ft/yr 

This annual net volume of water evaporated in the ponds is about 77.8% of the 
total drainage influent if seepage losses are accounted for. 

Net TDS Accumulation = g'^i 9 qq g^'.^y^ 810 000 tons/yr = 630 500 tons/yr (8.8) 

This is the annual net weight of salts accumulating in the ponds when seepage 
losses are considered. 

In order to estimate the volume of TDS accumulating in the pond, density of the 
salt precipitates must be assumed. Because the pond waters are predominantly of the 
Na2S04 -type water, thenardite (Na2S04) is the principal evaporite mineral formed in 
these ponds. The density of pure crystalline thenardite is 2.66 g/cm (Sonnenfeld, 1984) 
The density of other predominant evaporites identified in the salt deposits are 2.71 g/cm 
for calcite (CaCOa), 2.32 g/cm^ for gypsum (CaS04»2H20), and 2.23 g/cm for bloedite 
(Na2S04»MgS04»5H20). 

Assuming a density of 2.66 g/cm^ for salts precipitated in ponds, the annual 
volume of salts accumulating is estimated to be about 164,500 cubic yds or an average 
deposition thickness of 0.17 in/yr. 

In contrast, simulation runs by C-Salt as given in the interim report assumed 
that the density of precipitated minerals to be identical to the calculated density of the 
brine from which precipitation took place. The density of the brines when precipitation 
was occurring ranged from less than 1.1 to 1.4 g/cm as pond waters were 
evapoconcentrated 50-fold. This lower density is more representative of the shoreline 
salt deposits. , , /• , 

Assuming a density of 1.28 g/cm"" gives an estimated annual volume of salt 
accumulation of about 342,000 cubic yds or an average deposition thickness of 0.36 in/yr. 

The above range of estimates on annual salt deposition in ponds indicate huge 
amounts available for possible salt harvesting or for disposal. The potential for 
commercial salt harvesting is, however, constrained by the evel of punty, distance t^ 
the market and economics of worldwide markets (Personal communication E. Lee). 
Moreover the presence of toxic elements such as selenium, arsenic, boron, molybdenum 
and uranium may constrain how these salts are to be ultimately disposed. 



page 8.2 



d 



SECTION 9 



RECOMMENDED DESIGN AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 

Introduction 

Many factors affect the evaporation and precipitation rate in evaporation ponds. As 
some of these factors are not readily changeable, evaluation of each factor's manageability (or the 
degree to which the factor can be controlled) to accelerate evaporation and precipitation is 
addressed. Although evaporation and precipitation are inter-related, they are evaluated 
separately in finding manageablility factors. These factors will eventually be combined when 
recommending the design and best management practices for evaporation ponds. 

Factors Which Affect the Evaporation Rate 

Table 9.1 shows factors which affect the evaporation and those factors which are 
manageable to increase the evaporation rate. Net radiation, salinity and color of effluents can 
be controlled by specifying design and management practices. 

Table 9.1 Evaporation rat« factors and manageability 



EVAPORATION RATE FACTORS MANAGEABLE FACTORS 



O Climatic property O Climatic property 

Net Radiation Net Radiation 

Humidity 
Air Temperature 
Wind Velocity and Direction 



C Water Property <" Water Property 

Salinity Salinity 

Color Color 

Temperature 
Chemical Composition 
Turbidit>' 



Net Radiation . 

Net radiation is defined as the difference between the amount of solar radiation which 
reaches the earth's surface, and the amount of refiect^d and reradiated radiation. Evaporation 
rate is calculated using the energy balance and Bowen ratio; 

E = ^^ (1) 

Ul + B) 

E = evaporation 

R = net radiation 

S = heat stored in water 

L = latent heat of water vaporization 

B = Bowen ratio 



page 9.1 



According to equation (1), if the absorbed net radiation in solution, R^^, increases, the 
evaporation rate will also increase. To increase the absorption of solar radiation in ponds, a dye 
such as 2-Naphthol Green is often used. 

Bonython (1965) compared evaporation rates between undyed and dyed salt ponds. At 
Dry Creek in South Australia during the 1948-1949 summer season, 58 acres of dyed salt- 
crystallizing ponds were compared with 87 acres of undyed ponds supplied saturated brine. 
Results showed that crystallization of salt in dyed ponds was 15-20% more than in undyed ponds. 
This indicates that the use of dye contributes significantly to increasing evaporation rates and 
the subsequent precipitation of salts. 

Salinity 

Salinity is directly related to seasonally variable drainage volume. Tanji and Grismer 
(1989) showed that in the San Joaquin Valley, the water volume in evaporation ponds is high 
during winter due to pre-plant irrigation and rainfall, and is low in late summer and fall because 
evaporation rate exceeds drainage drainage input. Therefore, salinity is high in summer and 
low in winter. 

Evaporation decreases with increasing salinity as this and many other studies have 
shown (Bonython, 1965; Janson, 1959; Moore and Runkles, 1968; Salhotra et al., 1959). In 
addition, salt crusts may form on the water surface with increasing evapoconcen tration resulting 
in a reduction of evaporation rate (Adams, 1934). Adequate design and management should thus 
aim at keeping salinity sufficiently low or removing salt crusts to maintain a reasonable 
evaporation rate. 

To achieve an adequate evaporation rate, the evaporation ponds should be divided into 
several cells so that waters can be separated according to their salinity range. The water wiUi 
the lowest salinity should be directed into the first cell and, as evapoconcentration proceeds, it 
should be conducted to other cells. 

Ormat Process 

Ormat Engineering, Inc, is advancing the Ormat process to enhance evaporation rat«s 
of dilute brines. This process is used to concentrate Dead Sea brine for minerals recovery in Israel 
and is also being demonstrated in a USER project to recover energy ft-om solar ponds at El Paso, 

Texas. 

The patented Ormat process involves pumping dilute brine through a large number of 
nozzles at a height of 30 meters so that the saline water is in contact with dry air. Due to 
proprietary constraints, details on the Ormat process are not completely known. This process 
appears to have a high initial capital investment and high operating cost. A potential problem 
exists of salt drift to adjacent lands. 

Holor of Solution ™r. j i i. i 

The color of solution affects the degree of net radiation absorption. The darker the color 
of the solution, the higher the absorption of net radiation. As mentioned earlier, the dye 2- 
Napthol Green is commonly used to alter the color. 

{Suit Precinitation u • i 

Precipitation of evaporites is a function of ion activities , solution temperature, chemical 
composition and pH. Each factor depends on several interacting variables which interact not 
only with each other but also with evaporation rate. For example, water temperature is 
dependent on absorption of net radiation, latent heat transfer and sensible heat transfer. 
Generally speaking, if water temperature is high, more minerals are dissolved due to an mcrease 
in the solubility product and the evaporation rate decreases. As far as the efficiency of 
evaporation ponds is concerned, the manageable factor affecting evaporation rate and salt 
precipitation is solute concentration and salinity. , ^ , > .. 

Precipitation of salts usually occurs when the ion activity product of solutes exceeds the 
solubility product of a particular mineral. When evapoconcentration of pond waters causes 

page 9.2 



precipitation, the salts may either form a surface-covering crust or suspended particles which 
settle and accumulate on the pond bottom. 

Since salt crusts on the surface of the pond reduce the evaporation rate significantly, 
surface salt crusts should be minimized or removed to ensure maximum efficiency of the 
evaporation. 

One method of removing salt crusts might be to control the flow of effluent using gates 
between adjacent cells. If differences in water level are maintained throughout cells, salt crust 
can be removed through addition of effluent from a more dilute cell. 

Another suggestion is to carry out salt removal during the night because cooler 
temperatures generally decrease the solubility product and hence, more salts will be available 
for removal by some mechanical means. 

Sadan Proposal 

Abraham Sadan and Cominco Ltd has a patent (Swinkel et al., 1986) to separate and 
purify salts in a non-convective solar pond. They contend that a brine consists of combinations 
ofhigher hydrated and lower hydra ted or anhydrous forms of salts. The patent claims that under 
saturated conditions it is possible to crystallize salt in a higher hydrated form, dehydrate it to 
a lower hydrated form in a non-convective solar pond, and recover the salt from the bottom of a 
pond in solid, pure form essentially free from other salts in the brine. 

Sadan (Sadan, 1987) presented to the Westlands Water District a proposal to recover 
high purity anhydrous Na^SO^ using an example of reducing 8,000 ac-fi/yr of tile effluents to 
14.25 ac-fl (52,000 tons) of anhydrous Na^SO^, 4.25 ac-fl (12,000 tons) of NaCl and 20.0 ac-ft 
(36, OCX) tons) of MgCl, bitterns. The proposal requires a 1,500 acre preconcentration pond from 
which CaCOj and CaSO^»2HjO would precipitate leaving 180 ac-fl of concentrated brine. The 
brine goes to a 16 acre deca pond in which Na^SO^'lOHjO (mirabilite) would precipitate out 
leaving a sulfate brine of 80 ac-fl. A 16 acre winter cooling pond is also required in which 
Na^SO^'lOHjO would precipitate and dissolve. The cooled brine of 50 ac-fl is transferred to a 
12 acre pond to precipitate NaCl. The remaining 20 ac-ft of bitterns is stored in a 36 acre non- 
convective pond from which Na,SO^ may precipitate. 

In the above process, selenium was assumed to remain in the dissolved state and 
evapoconcentrate in the brines. The example given estimated Se would increase from 0.31 to 
15.08 mg/liter in the preconcentration pond, from 15.08 to 33.46 mg/liter in the deca pond, from 
33.46 to 53.89 mg/liter in the winter cooling pond, and from 53.89 to 136.20 mg/liter. 

Our assessment is that the process outlined above would require extremely close controls 
on salinity levels to preferentially precipitate out Na^SO/ lOH^O, NaCl and Na,SO^. This may 
be possible in an industrial processing plant but probably not in agricultural evaporation ponds. 
Moreover, the assumption that Se would evapoconcentrate in a conservative manner and not be 
reactive is contrary to our observations in evaporation ponds. 

Best Design to Sustain Evaporation Rate and Precipitation 

Although the current design of evaporation ponds is based on United States Department 
of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service (1982) design criteria, the best design considered here 
is based on having the highest efficiency and the least detrimental effect on the environment. The 
best design will take into account the suggestions mentioned previously. 

Size 

Evaporation ponds should have enough capacity to satisfy the maximum storage 
expected or total inflow minus the total outflow. 

Total inflow = drainage from the field 
+ rainfall 

+ perimeter drainage (drainage collected by interceptor drain) 
Total outflow = evaporation -t- seepage 



pagt 9.3 



In the San Joaquin Valley, water levels in evaporation ponds change seasonally . They 
are typically high in winter and low in summer (Tanji and Grismer, 1989). Since the capacity 
of the evaporation ponds have to satisfy the highest water level to avoid overflow to adjacent 
areas, pond capacity has to be determined using the highest water inflow rather than the yearly 
averaged value. Pond volume must also be calculated to deal with major storm events and 
prolonged high rainfall years. 

Shape 

The major factor influencing the shape of an evaporation pond is the environmental 
impact. Since wildlife are attracted to evaporation ponds, the reduction of shoreline (the 
reduction of access to contaminated water) is desirable. Although the circular shape poses the 
least shoreline per unit area compared to square and rectangular shapes, the circular shape 
would not make efficient use of land because most fields are rectangular in shape. If land wasted 
is not a constraint, the circular shap>e is the best option environmentally. Otherwise, the square 
shape is recommended since the shoreline per unit area is less than that of rectangular shapes 
(Department of Water Resources, 1988). 

Depth J V- o 

According to the Department of Fish and (^me the recommended minimum depth is 2 

feet to discourage wildlife use. Bonython (1965) found that the variation with depth can be 

virtually neglected evaluating the result of Ferguson (1952) and Block etal., (1951). Ferguson 

has shown that evaporation in a pond with a depth of 40 inches is 4 % less than a 6 inch deep pond, 

and the evaporation from a 1 inch deep pond is 4 % greater than a 6 inch deep pond. Thus, the 

influence of depth on evaporation may be largely ignored. 

Cells 

As explained in the previous sections, cells contribute to maximizing evaporation and 
salt precipitation by allowing mixing of waters to control solute concentrations. Cells with gates 
are essential for regulating solute concentrations and thus maximizing efficiency of evaporation 
ponds. 

Embankment 

The current design based on the specification of the Department of Agriculture-Soil 
Conservation Service is adequate relative to evaporation but not to discourage wildlife usage. 
The current design criteria include: 

Top width At least 14 feet 

Freeboard 1.6 feet or the maximum wave ramp 

Inside Slope 6:1 

Outside Slope 2:1 

T.inintT and Intprcentx)r Drain • ,, /• ui r 

Impermeable linings such as concrete and asphalt are not economically feasible for 
evaporation ponds. Tanji and Grismer (1989) estimated that seepage from a typical San Joaquin 
Valley evaporation pond is approximately 1 foot per year using existing soil materials for a pond 
bottom. Interceptor drains would be desirable to reduce contamination of groundwater ftx)m 
seepage. Tanji et al. (1985) suggested installation of tile drains underneath ponds instead of 
around the perimeter and pumping seepage back into evaporation ponds. 

Best Management Options 

Possible management options to sustain evaporation and precipiUtion rates include: 
1 Use of green dyes to increase evaporation. 

2. Monitor the salinity of eflHuent to each cell to determine when effluent should be 
transferred to a higher concentration cell. 

page 9.4 



3. Remove salt crusts periodically. 

4. Prevent the complete drying out of evaporation ponds or pond cells. As there is 
some uncertainty as to whether the periodic drying out of ponds reduces biota 
and hazards to wildlife, further research needs to be carried out. Until these 
uncertainties are addressed, evaporation ponds should not be dried out (Depart- 
ment of Water Resources, 1988). Also, during the drying phase, more wildlife 
may have access to contaminated water. 

5. Use blue-green algae to seal the pond bottoms instead of interceptor drains to 
minimize seepage. It has been reported that 3-12 months after applying blue- 
green algae, complete sealing occurs in salt- producing ponds. Although the cost 
of algae treatment is less than interceptor drains, the effectiveness is still 
undetermined (Department of Water Resources, 1988). 

6. Consider ORMAT, an evaporation enhancement system. ORMAT is designed to 
increase the evaporation rate of water by reducing the water to fine droplets. The 
total surface area of droplets is greater than a surface water body of the same 
volume of water. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the rate of evaporation. 
Since a higher rate of evaporation is achieved, smaller ponds would be required. 
ORMAT is commercially used in Israel and has been utilized in the U. S. 
(Bradford et al., 1989b). Since performance information concerning ORMAT is 
limited, the efficiency in increasing evaporation ratesof water is not known. In 
addition, a high cost of set-up and operation could hinder widespread applica- 
tion. 

7. Use Iron Sulfide (FeS^) Sealing. Paul and Clark (1989) stated that Soviet 
workers found that a buried layer of straw approximately 15 cm thick covered 
with another 15 cm of soil results in the sealing of soils under ponds by means 
of a gleying reaction (decay of organic matter resulting in the reduction of Fe** 
to Fe^* and SO^' to S^ . As a result of that reaction, FeS^ is precipitated and soil 
colloids peptize. This procedure is inexpensive, and might be used in reducing 
or preventing seepage leading to contamination of groundwater. 

Constraints 

The above best management options and design features may be overridden by consid- 
erations to make evaporation ponds least attractive to wildlife and reduce potential contaminant 
hazards to wildlife. 



page 9.5 



I 



SECTION 10 
REFERENCES 

Adams, T. C. 1934. Evaporation from Great Salt Lake. Amer. Meteorol. Sex. Bull. 15(2): 35-39. 

Backlund, V. L. and R. R. Hoppes. 1984. Status of soil salinity in California. California 
Agriculture., 38(10): p. 89 

Block, M. R., L. Farkas, and K. S. Spiegler. 1951. Solar Evaporation of Salt Brines. Ind. Eng. 
Chem. 43(7): 1544-1553 

Bonython, C. W. 1956. The Influence of Salinity Upon the Rate of Natural Evaporation. Acid 
Zone Research, Vol. 2: pp. 65-71. 

Bonython, C. W. 1965. Factors determining the rate of solar evaporation in the production of 
salt. 2nd Northern Ohio Geological Society Symposium on sa\i,Northem Ohio Geological 
Society. Clevelsmd, Ohio. 

Bradford, G. R., D. Bakhtar, L. J. Lund, and A. D. Brown. 1989a. In TTf^Ralinitv/Drainaf^eTask 
Force: 1988-89 Technical Progress Report . Division of ANR, University of California, 
September 1989, pp. 76-80. 

Bradford, D. F., D. Drezner, J. D. Shoemaker, and L. Smith. 1989b. Experimental approaches 
and facilities for testing methods to minimize the contamination hazards to wildlife using 
agricultural evaporation ponds. Department of Water Resources- contract number 
STCA/DWR B57339. 

CH2MHILL. 1988. San Joaquin Valley Hydrologic and Salt Load Budgets. Prepared for the San 
Joaquin Valley Drainage Program under U. S. Bureau of Reclamation Contract No. 7-CS- 
20-05210 Order No. 8-PD-20-05210/003, Modification 003. 22 pp. 

Dalton, J. 1834. Meteorological observations and essays (2nd edition) 

Department of Water Resources. 1988. Agricultural drainage evaporation ponds in the San 
Joaquin Valley. Progress of the Investigation, Memorandum Report, October, 1988. 
pp. 73-85. 

Ferguson, J. 1952. The rate of natural evaporation from shallow ponds. Aus^ Joum. Sci. Res. 
5(2): pp. 315-330 

Janson. L. 1959. Evaporation from Salt Water in Arid Zones. Trans. Royal Inst. Tech.. 
Stockholm, Sweden. No. 137. 13 pp. 

Lashman, G. 1975. Evaporation from prairie sloughs, reservoirs and lakes. Canadian Hydrology 
symposium proceedings. 

List, R. J. 1951. Smithsonian meteorological tables (6th revised Ed.). Smithsonian Inst., 
Washington.,D.C. pp 351-353. 

Leva E W 1989 Graphite furnace determination ofmolybdenum by palladium hydroxylamine 
' hydrochloride matrix modification. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Atomic Spectroscopy 
10(2): pp. 61-65. 



page 10.1 



Moore, J. and J. R. Runkles. May 1968. Evaporation from brine under controlled laboratory 
conditions. Texas Water Development Board, Austin, Texas. Report No. 77. 69 pp. 

Paul, E. A. and F. E. Clark. 1989. Soil micro hiolo^ anH biochemistrv . Academic Press, San 
Diego, pp 252-255. 

Sadan.A. 1987. Westlands water districtdrainage solar evaporation. A preliminary evaluation. 
A technical proposal for drainage management. 22 pp. 

Salhotra, A. M., E. E. Adams and D. R. F. Harleman. 1987. The Alpha, Beta, Gamma of 
Evaporation from Saline Water Bodies. Water Resources Research 23(9): pp. 1769-1774. 

San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program. 1989. Preliminary planning alternatives for solving 
agricultural drainage and drainage-related problems in the San Joaquin Valley. August 
1989. 

Sonnenfeld, P. 1984. Brines and Evaporites. Academic Press, New York, 613 pp. 

Swinkels, G. M., A Sadan, M. A. Rockandel and H. Rensing. 1986. Separation and purification 
of salts in a non-convective solar pond. U. S. Patent 4 569 676. Date issued: 1 1 February. 

Tanji, K K. and M. E. Grismer. 1989. Physicochemical efficacy of agricultural evaporation 
ponds-an interim literature review and synthesis. Department of Water Resources- 
Agreement number B-56769. 

Tanji, K. K 1989. Chemistry of toxic elements (As, B, Mo, Se) accumulating in agricultural 
evaporation ponds. Proc. Second Pan-American Regional Conference, U.S. Committee on 
Irrigation and Drainage, June 8-9, Ottowa, Ontario, Canada, pp 109- 121. 

Tanji, K. K, M. E. Grismer and B. R. Hanson. 1985. Subsurface drainage evaporation ponds. 
California Agriculture 39(9): pp. 10-12 

Turk, L. J. 1970. Evaporation of brine: A field study on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah. Water 
Resources Research 6(4): pp. 1209-1215. 

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. Ponds-Planning, 
Design, Construction. Agriculture Handbook 590. 



page 10.2 



J 



SECTION 11 
APPENDICES 



APPENDIX A: Evaporation Pond Diurnal Monitoring Data 



Table A.1 Weather Conditions During First DiumaJ Study: Pryse I 


'ond 






p^: 


tiana Ttm9 


1 


T«mp 


Serial 


RH Wind 


wifjdSj 


#'*■ 


hr$ 


•c 


Radiafitm 


% 


{Srecfen,* 


mfi 


p 




3/26/89 10:00 AM 


0.0 


11.5 


64.80 


67 


354 


0.54 


10:30 AM 


0.5 


11.4 


16.92 


69 


288 


0.646 


11:00 AM 


1.0 


12.5 


71.50 


65 


16 


0.606 


11 :00 AM 


1.5 


12.6 


31.80 


65 


50 


0.566 


1 1 :30 AM 


2.0 


13.6 


72.40 


63 


315 


0.619 


12:00 N 


2.5 


13.6 


40.80 


58 


350 


0.606 


12:30 PM 


3.0 


13.5 


14.76 


56 


277 


0.566 


1 :00 PM 


3.5 


13.9 


10.02 


56 


121 


0.540 


1 :30 PM 


4.0 


14.0 


9.24 


59 


301 


0.480 


2:00 PM 


4.5 


14.8 


46.32 


49 


47 


0.486 


2:30 PM 


5.0 


15.6 


47.40 


51 


285 


0.560 


3:00 PM 


5.5 


15.2 


25.26 


5C 


250 


0.460 


3:30 PM 


6.0 


14.9 


27.66 


51 


63 


0.460 


4:00 PM 


6.5 


14.7 


8.40 


52 


341 


0.500 


4:30 PM 


7.0 


14.3 


4.74 


5S 


) 106 


0.500 


5:00 PM 


7.5 


13.6 


0.72 


65 126 


0.513 


5:30 PM 


8.0 


13.3 


0.24 


72 108 


0.633 


6:00 PM 


8.5 


13.1 


0.12 


75 138 


0.526 


6:30 PM 


9.0 


12.9 


0.30 


77 150 


0.540 


7:00 PM 


9.5 


12.9 


-0.30 


74 147 


0.553 


7:30 PM 


10.0 


12.8 


-0.06 


78 174 


0.460 


8:00 PM 


10.5 


12.7 


-0.30 


76 197 


0.447 


8:30 PM 


11.0 


12.1 


0.30 


75 220 


0.580 


9:00 PM 


11.5 


10.8 


0.06 


88 60 


0.540 


9:30 PM 


12.0 


9.8 


-0.12 


96 41 


0.619 


10:00 PM 


12.5 


11.0 


-0.72 


96 130 


0.566 


10:30 PM 


13.0 


10.7 


0.00 


94 112 


0.460 


1 1 :00 PM 


13.5 


10.5 


0.12 


95 116 


0.500 


11:30 PM 


14.0 


10.1 


0.03 


93 154 


0.606 


3/27/89 12:00 M 


14.5 


9.5 


-0.06 


94 109 


0.646 


12:30 AM 


15.0 


8.1 


-0.42 


97 86 


0.526 


1 :00 AM 


15.5 


8.5 


0.18 


98 153 


0.646 


1 :30 AM 


16.0 


7.4 


0.06 


99 102 


0.553 


2:00 AM 


16.5 


7.4 


-0.06 


100 104 


0.580 


2:30 AM 


17.0 


7.1 


0.12 


101 143 


0.566 


3:00 AM 


17.5 


5.5 


-0.24 


100 213 


0.447 


3:30 AM 


18.0 


4.7 


0.06 


102 63 


0.606 


4:00 AM 


18.5 


4.9 


-0.06 


102 264 


0.513 


4:30 AM 


19.0 


5.5 


-0.18 


103 114 


0.606 


5:00 AM 


19.5 


4.9 


0.48 


103 255 


0.447 


5:30 AM 


20.0 


• 


• 










6:00 AM 


20.5 


tt 












6:30 AM 


21.0 


• 












7:00 AM 


21.5 


• 












7:30 AM 


22.0 


* 












8:00 AM 


22.5 


• 












8:30 AM 


23.0 


• 












9:00 AM 


23.5 


• 












9:30 AM 
* . na data 


24.0 


• 











poffe 11.1 



Table AJ2 Pond Water Conditions During First Diurnal Study: 


Pryse Pond 








psS 


t>&9 


Tme 


itow 


Tcn^ 


£C(2S°<5^ 


pW 


56 


&i 


6«n»Jty: 


pi 






iws 


♦c 


dS/m 




me/L 


OiV 




1 


3/26/89 


10:00 AM 





16.2 


51.58 


8.06 


8.2 


536 


1.035 






12:00 N 


2 


17.3 


52.60 


849 


94 


465 


1.035 






2:00 PM 


4 


18.1 


50.93 


8.42 


11.2 


492 


1.035 






4:00 PM 


6 


17.6 


51.88 


8.36 


90 


484 


1.035 






6:00 PM 


8 


17.7 


50.59 


855 


14.2 


419 


1.035 






8:00 PM 


10 


17.3 


50.71 


8.57 


17.6 


419 


1.030 






10:00 PM 


12 


17.8 


50.00 


8.6 


17.8 


420 


1.030 




3/27/89 


12:00 M 


14 


16 


50.73 


853 


16.0 


415 


1.030 






2:00 AM 


16 


14.7 


51.51 


86 


15.6 


419 


1.030 






4:00 AM 


18 


15 


50.63 


8.57 


13.6 


403 


1.030 






6:00 AM 


20 


13.3 


5248 


8.59 


12.8 


396 


1.030 






8:00 AM 


22 


14 


52.56 


862 


13.4 


375 


1.035 






10:00 AM 


24 


16.3 


52.66 


8.49 


10.4 


384 


1.035 


Table A.S Weather Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Peck Pond 




T>m9 


X 




T«fnp 


d<^ 


«H 




W«nd 


Wind Spwd 


^if 




hns 




*C 


Radiation 


% 


D»r«ction,* 


m/« "si* 


3/29/89 


10:00 AM 







16.0 


53 34 


53 




319 


0.553 




10:30 AM 


0.5 




16.9 


57.78 


51 




329 


0.593 




1 1 :00 AM 


1.0 




17.3 


60.42 


52 




330 


0,486 




1 1 :30 AM 


1.5 




17.8 


61.04 


52 




330 


0.593 




12:00 N 


2.0 




184 


63.18 


54 




311 


0.606 




12:30 PM 


2.5 




19.4 


63.00 


52 




337 


0.540 




1 :00 PM 


3.0 




19.4 


61.62 


50 




317 


0.447 




1 :30 PM 


3.5 




20.1 


59.28 


51 




303 


0.553 




2:00 PM 


4.0 




21.5 


55.98 


48 




316 


0.593 




2:30 PM 


4.5 




21.1 


51.48 


43 




310 


0.553 




3:00 PM 


5.0 




21.3 


46.14 


43 




336 


0.606 




3:30 PM 


5.5 




21.6 


38.88 


50 




328 


0.606 




4.00 PM 


6.0 




21.7 


32.52 


40 




326 


0.460 




4:30 PM 


6.5 




21.4 


24.84 


39 




344 


0.500 




5:00 PM 


7.0 




21.1 


17.34 


43 




327 


0.480 




5:30 PM 


7.5 




21.6 


10.02 


43 




335 


0.447 




6:00 PM 


8.0 




19.6 


28.80 


47 




348 


0.633 




6:30 PM 


85 




17.5 


12 


50 




330 


0.526 




7:00 PM 


90 




15.9 


0.00 


55 




316 


0646 




7:30 PM 


95 




15.6 


-0.18 


56 




267 


0.503 




8:00 PM 


10.0 




14.6 


000 


55 




304 


473 




8:30 PM 


10.5 




14.4 


0.00 


60 




293 


0.500 




9:00 PM 


11.0 




14.1 


0.00 


62 




296 


0.513 




9:30 PM 


11.5 




13.4 


-0 06 


62 




265 


0.540 




10:00 PM 


120 




13.3 


-0.06 


61 




266 


0.553 




10:30 PM 


12.5 




13.1 


0.00 


62 




269 


0.553 




11:00 PM 


13.0 




14.1 


-0.12 


62 




253 


0486 




1 1 :30 PM 


13.5 




13.6 


-0.06 


64 




246 


0.526 


3/30/89 


12:00 M 


14.0 




13.5 


0.00 


64 




261 


0.566 




12:30 AM 


14.5 




12.9 


0.00 


65 




264 


0.473 




1 :00 AM 


15.0 




12.8 


-0.06 


66 




255 


0.646 




1 :30 AM 


15.5 




12.0 


-0.06 


70 




252 


0.566 




2:00 AM 


16.0 




12.3 


0.00 


71 




262 


0.473 




2:30 AM 


16.5 




8.0 


0.00 


73 




22 


0.513 




3:00 AM 


17.0 




6.0 


-0.12 


82 




13 


0486 




3:30 AM 


17.5 




7.2 


-0.12 


84 




355 


0.606 




4:00 AM 


18.0 




8.0 


0.00 


84 




331 


0.580 




4:30 AM 
5:00 AM 
530 AM 
6:00 AM 
630 AM 
7:00 AM 
730 AM 
8:00 AM 
8:30 AM 
9:00 AM 
9:30 AM 
10:00 AK/ 


18.5 
19.0 
195 
20.0 
20.5 
21.0 
21.5 
22.0 
225 
23.0 
235 
1 24.0 




8.2 

8.1 

8.5 

8.4 

8.0 

10.1 

11.8 

13.2 

14.7 

16.0 

16.8 

173 


-006 
000 
-006 
0.66 
5.34 
12.60 
17.58 
27.72 
3342 
41.82 
5895 
55.01 


84 
84 
85 
85 

79 
76 
75 
74 
68 
65 
59 
56 




202 
267 
257 
251 
264 
257 
260 
274 
302 
278 
358 
310 


0.500 
0580 
6,^1 
0.460 
0540 
0580 
0.503 
0.580 
0.540 
0.510 
0526 
0593 




















pagf 11.2 



Table A.4 Pond Water Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Peck Pond 



M 


08t« 


TiJtte 


t»m« 


T*mp 


EC<26"C) 


PH 


t)6 


&h 


D»n»«/;| 


f 






hrs 


♦c 


as/m 




fng/L 


itiV 


:■:■; 


3 


3/29/89 


10:00 AM 





17.3 


70.80 


8.59 


9.5 


385 


1.070 






12:00 N 


2 


18.9 


74.26 


8.69 


9.8 


434 


1.070 






2:00 PM 


4 


21.7 


72.38 


8.64 


9.8 


356 


1.070 






4:00 PM 


6 


22.3 


73.33 


8.63 


10.0 


387 


1.070 






6:00 PM 


8 


21.1 


73.54 


8.61 


10.4 


372 


1.070 






8:00 PM 


10 


19.5 


73.82 


8.58 


10.2 


377 


1.070 






10:00 PM 


12 


18.2 


72.34 


8.66 


9.6 




1.070 




3/30/89 


12:00 M 


14 


16.7 


73.14 


8.6 


9.8 






1.070 






2:00 AM 


16 


16 


72.44 


8.62 


9.4 






1.070 






4:00 AM 


18 


13.5 


73.12 


8.64 


9.3 






1.070 






6:00 AM 


20 


13.4 


73.70 


8.57 


9.6 






1.070 






8:00 AM 


22 


13.5 


75.32 


8.66 


9.0 






1.070 






10:00 AM 


24 


16.4 


73.79 


8.57 


9.4 




1.070 


5 


3/29/89 


10:00 AM 





18.3 


61.66 


8.71 


10.0 


391 


1.060 






12:00 N 


2 


20.3 


64.90 


8.73 


10.0 


419 


1.060 






2:00 PM 


4 


225 


62.91 


8.7 


9.6 


348 


1.060 






4:00 PM 


6 


21.5 


64.62 


8.72 


9.9 


380 


1.060 






6:00 PM 


8 


19.1 


63.83 


8.69 


9.4 


364 


1.060 






8:00 PM 


10 


16.6 


63.70 


8.65 


94 






1.060 






10:00 PM 


12 


16.5 


61.45 


8.69 


9.2 






1.060 




3/30/89 


12:00 M 


14 


14.4 


62.44 


8.64 


9.4 






1.060 






2:00 AM 


16 


14.6 


62.25 


8.66 


9.6 






1.060 






4:00 AM 


18 


11.9 


63.82 


8.58 


9.6 






1.065 






6:00 AM 


20 


12.4 


62.97 


8.7 


9.4 






1.060 






8:00 AM 


22 


13.8 


65.98 


8.73 


10.8 






1.065 






10:00 AM 


24 


19.8 


64.29 


8.69 


11.6 




1.060 




• = no data 



















page 11.3 



Table A.6 Weather Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Barbizon Pond 



pts 


Ttrm 


1 


T%mp 


Sda 


RH 


Wind 


WindSpMd 


^ 




™™.hr$ . . 


•0. 


s: Radiation 


% 


C*«<5ttOft,* 


mfB :i^ 


3/27/89 


1 00 PM 


0.0 


19.8 


57.36 


22 


3 


0.447 




1 .30 PM 


0.5 


20.0 


53.34 


21 


183 


0.566 




2:00 PM 


1.0 


19.9 


48.78 


22 


329 


0.513 




2:30 PM 


1.5 


20.2 


43.20 


22 


7 


0.513 




3:00 PM 


2.0 


20.3 


36.54 


23 


33 


0.513 




3:30 PM 


2.5 


19.5 


29.88 


23 


339 


0.593 




4:00 PM 


3.0 


19.2 


22.14 


22 


357 


0.646 




4:30 PM 


3.5 


18.9 


14.88 


22 


16 


0.513 




5:00 PM 


4.0 


18.1 


7.74 


22 


363 


0.566 




5:30 PM 


4.5 


16.4 


1.44 


22 


27 


0.619 




6:00 PM 


5.0 


15.4 


0.00 


22 


31 


0.540 




6:30 PM 


5.5 


14.8 


0.00 


22 


42 


0.619 




7:00 PM 


6.0 


14.4 


-0.06 


22 


339 


0.513 




7:30 PM 


6.5 


14.3 


-0.06 


21 


351 


0.619 




8:00 PM 


7.0 


13.6 


-0.06 


22 


326 


0.447 




8:30 PM 


7.5 


13.5 


-0.06 


21 


325 


0.593 




9:00 PM 


8.0 


13.4 


-0.06 


21 


174 


0.500 




9:30 PM 


85 


11.2 


0.00 


22 


345 


0.553 




10:00 PM 


9.0 


13.3 


-0.06 


21 


162 


0.513 




10:30 PM 


9.5 


12.6 


-0.06 


21 


214 


0.540 




11:00 PM 


10.0 


11.5 


-0.12 


21 


284 


0.593 




1 1 :30 PM 


10.5 


9.5 


-0.06 


21 


298 


0.513 


3/28/89 


12:00 M 


11.0 


9.4 


-0.06 


21 


343 


0.447 




12:30 AM 


11.5 


8.9 


0.00 


21 


45 


0.447 




1:00 AM 


12.0 


8.0 


-0.06 


21 


98 


0.566 




1:30 AM 


12.5 


6.6 


-0.06 


21 


67 


0.606 




2:00 AM 


13.0 


8.1 


-0.06 


21 


162 


0.540 




2:30 AM 


13.5 


9.6 


0.00 


21 


163 


0.500 




3:00 AM 


14.0 


9.3 


-0.06 


21 


178 


0.447 




3:30 AM 


14.5 


9.1 


0.00 


21 


205 


0.460 




4:00 AM 


15.0 


9.0 


-0,06 


21 


116 


0.473 




4:30 AM 


15.5 


7.9 


-0.06 


21 


90 


0.460 




5:00 AM 


16.0 


8.4 


0.00 


21 


80 


0.593 




5:30 AM 


16.5 


8.0 


0.72 


21 


86 


0.580 




6:00 AM 


17.0 


9.7 


6.48 


21 


106 


0.553 




6:30 AM 


17.5 


12.1 


3.54 


21 


133 


0.566 




7:00 AM 


18.0 


14.1 


21.18 


21 


153 


0.633 




7:30 AM 


18.5 


14.5 


27.72 


21 


157 


0.486 




8:00 AM 


19.0 


16.6 


34.80 


21 


154 


0.486 




8:30 AM 


19.5 


17.0 


41.10 


21 


157 


0.447 




9:00 AM 


20.0 


18.7 


46.92 


21 


228 


0.500 




9:30 AM 


20.5 


20.1 


52.02 


21 


165 


0.580 




10:00 AM 


21.0 


20.7 


54.92 


21 


169 


0.486 




10:30 AM 


21.5 


22.2 


59.22 


21 


283 


0.566 




1 1 :00 AM 


22.0 


21.2 


60.78 


21 


98 


0.606 




1 1 :00 AM 


22.5 


23.4 


60.96 


21 


140 


0.500 




1 1 :30 AM 


23.0 


23.8 


60.60 


21 


100 


0.460 




12:00 N 


23.5 


23.9 


60.30 


21 


226 


0.500 




12:30 PM 


24.0 


24.6 


57.90 


21 


319 


0.553 



page 



11.4 



Table A-G Pond Water Conditions During First Diurnal Study: Barbiron Pond 

CS Di» time vSm Twf^ ^{25^) pH 55 ' ib D«n$^; 



^t X dS/m TagfL mV 



3/27/89 



3/28/89 



1 :00 PM 





21.2 


21.75 


8.70 


348.7 


15 


1.010 


3:00 PM 


2 


24.6 


21.57 


9.01 


381.7 


18 


1.010 


5:00 PM 


4 


23.5 


20.41 


8.94 


54,7 


19 


1.010 


7:00 PM 


6 


20.7 


21.12 


9.06 


117.7 


15 


1.010 


9:00 PM 


8 


19.4 


20.95 


8.82 


196.7 


11 


1.015 


1 1 :00 PM 


10 


17.9 


20.40 


8.72 


172.7 


10 


1.010 


1 :00 AM 


12 


15.5 


21.11 


8.83 


407.7 


8 


1.010 


3:00 AM 


14 


14.6 


20.68 


8.48 


476.7 


6 


1.010 


5:00 AM 


16 


14 


20.45 


8.60 


491.7 


5 


1.010 


7:00 AM 


18 


13.9 


21.22 


8.72 


478.7 


5 


1.010 


9:00 AM 


20 


19.5 


20.03 


9.70 


457.7 


10 


1.010 


1 1 :00 AM 


22 


23.8 


21.21 


8.96 


447.7 


14 


1.010 


1 :00 PM 


24 


26.2 


21.48 


9.00 


423.7 


16 


1.010 



page 11.5 



I 



*>ata Tsm 

i 


1 
hrs 


T^ 


Rsdiafcn 


RH 
% 




Wind Speed, 


8/15/89 11:00 AM 


0.0 


32.7 


59.22 


35 


199 


0.593 


11:30 AM 


0.5 


33.5 


16.14 


40 


176 


0.486 


12:00 PM 


1.0 


35.3 


65.04 


34 


113 


0.593 


12:30 PM 


1.5 


35.3 


67.20 


33 


153 


0.513 


1 :00 PM 


2.0 


37.1 


67.26 


28 


127 


0.566 


1 :30 PM 


2.5 


38.6 


66.24 


28 


221 


0.486 


2:00 PM 


3.0 


37.7 


65.10 


26 


167 


0.553 


2:30 PM 


3.5 


39.1 


62.52 


24 


203 


0.619 


3:00 PM 


4.0 


39.5 


57.96 


25 


176 


0.580 


3:30 PM 


4.5 


39.0 


53.70 


24 


347 


0.646 


4:00 PM 


5.0 


38.5 


49.38 


23 


362 


0.606 


4:30 PM 


5.5 


38.5 


43.56 


23 


57 


0.566 


5:00 PM 


6.0 


38.3 


36.36 


24 


33 


0.473 


5:30 PM 


6.5 


38.0 


30.00 


23 


17 


0.553 


6:00 PM 


7.0 


37.7 


22.44 


23 


354 


0.593 


6:30 PM 


7.5 


36.7 


14.94 


23 


22 


0.540 


7:00 PM 


8.0 


34.9 


8.04 


26 


34 


0.606 


7:30 PM 


8.5 


31.4 


1.26 


29 


37 


0.486 


8:00 PM 


9.0 


30.8 


0.18 


34 


299 


0.526 


8:30 PM 


9.5 


27.4 


-0.06 


35 


235 


0.540 


9:00 PM 


10.0 


24.3 


-0.06 


39 


237 


0.540 


9:30 PM 


10.5 


23.0 


-0.12 


42 


230 


0.526 


10:00 PM 


11.0 


21.5 


-0.06 


43 


239 


0.566 


10:30 PM 


11.5 


21.6 


-0.06 


44 


238 


0.486 


1 1 :00 PM 


12.0 


20.5 


0.00 


47 


237 


0.500 


1 1 :30 PM 


12.5 


20.4 


0.06 


46 


236 


0.593 


8/16/89 12:00 AM 


13.0 


20.7 


0.00 


47 


271 


0.580 


12:30 AM 


13.5 


20.3 


0.00 


47 


256 


0.593 


1 :00 AM 


14.0 


20.5 


0.00 


49 


279 


0.553 


1 :30 AM 


14.5 


20.7 


0.00 


52 


286 


0.553 


2:00 AM 


15.0 


19.1 


0.06 


56 


269 


0.447 


2:30 AM 


15.5 


18.1 


0.00 


54 


266 


0.540 


3:00 AM 


16.0 


17.0 


-0.12 


63 


248 


0.633 


3:30 AM 


16.5 


17.8 


-0.06 


54 


255 


0.460 


4:00 AM 


17,0 


17.7 


0.00 


56 


256 


0.500 


4:30 AM 


17.5 


17.1 


0.12 


56 


255 


0.606 


5:00 AM 


18.0 


16.1 


-0.06 


66 


242 


0.526 


5:30 AM 


18.5 


16.8 


-0.06 


67 


82 


0.553 


6:00 AM 


19.0 


15.6 


0.00 


68 


120 


0.513 


6:30 AM 


19.5 


16.9 


1.14 


78 


145 


0.566 


7:00 AM 


20.0 


20.6 


6.72 


70 


152 


0.606 


7:30 AM 


20.5 


21.0 


13.62 


59 


141 


0.593 


8:00 AM 


21.0 


22.9 


21.06 


55 


153 


0.633 


8:30 AM 


21.5 


23.2 


3.36 


53 


130 


0.553 


9:00 AM 


22.0 


25.3 


36.00 


49 


131 


0.447 


9:30 AM 


22.5 


27.2 


42.66 


46 


126 


0.447 


10:00 AM 


23.0 


29.7 


48.18 


45 


126 


0.646 


10:30 AM 


23.5 


32.2 


54.12 


32 


226 


0.526 


1 1 :00 AM 


24.0 


33.0 


58.68 


29 


262 


0.500 



page 11.6 



Table A-8 Pond Water Conciitions During Second Ehumal Study; Pryse Pond 



W^ 



0atB 



Totw 



6fna 



TofTHJ 



^^.-^^ 



PH 



DO 



Eh 



OenHJy 



1 NW 8/15/89 


11:00 AM 





29.2 


56.09 


8.62 


3.6 




477 


1.040 




1 :00 PM 


2 


31.8 


56.87 


8.79 


20.0 




470 


1.040 




3:00 PM 


4 


35.1 


59.65 


8.82 


6.7 




434 


1.040 




5:00 PM 


6 


31.1 


65.69 


8.79 


18.6 




380 


1.050 




7:00 PM 


8 


26.9 


65.61 


8.32 


7.2 




356 


1.050 




9:00 PM 


10 


26.3 


65.59 


8.53 


6.4 




318 


1.050 




1 1 :00 PM 


12 


25.8 


65.45 


8.58 


13.8 




340 


1.050 


8/16/89 


1 :00 AM 


14 


26,2 


67.19 


8.68 


11.8 




338 


1.050 




3:00 AM 


16 


24.6 


67.44 


5.47 


6.0 




326 


1.045 




5:00 AM 


18 


23.8 


65.68 


8.54 


3.2 




358 


1.050 




7:00 AM 


20 


19.3 


61.85 


8.55 


6.0 




373 


1.050 




9:00 AM 


22 


22.8 


54.92 


8.52 


18.8 




377 


1.040 




1 1 :00 AM 


24 


28.7 


54.10 


8.61 


20.0 




353 


1.035 


Table A.9 Weather Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: 


Peck Pond 










;i?at« T>mo 


t 




Tamp 


^Kiiat 


FW 




WmJ 




Wtml Spwics 




hre 




"C 


RadiaHofi 


% 


Oif««ton, ' 


nv« i 


8/19/89 10:30 AM 


05 




25.2 


50.82 


56 




14 




0.460 


1 1 :00 AM 


1.0 




27.3 


55.50 


58 




265 




0.447 


11:30 AM 


1.5 




29 


59 46 


55 




273 




0.629 


12:00 PM 


2.0 




289 


62.28 


57 




261 




0.512 


12:30 PM 


2.5 




32.1 


64.56 


50 




256 




0.538 


1 :00 PM 


3.0 




31.8 


64.86 


48 




76 




0.551 


1 :30 PM 


3.5 




33.3 


63.96 


45 




355 




0.460 


2:00 PM 


40 




30.6 


5.34 


41 




83 




0.603 


2:30 PM 


4.5 




34.2 


60 IB 


40 




322 




0.447 


3:00 PM 


5.0 




35.2 


56.58 


40 




354 




0.486 


3:30 PM 


5.5 




34.0 


52.02 


39 




217 




0.616 


4:00 PM 


6.0 




33.1 


47.10 


40 




289 




0.400 


4:30 PM 


6.6 




329 


41.22 


38 




203 




0447 


6:00 PM 


7.0 




329 


34.86 


38 




273 




0.500 


6:30 PM 


7.5 




32 


27.84 


31 




341 




0.525 


6:00 PM 


8.0 




31.6 


20 46 


42 




348 




0.500 


6:30 PM 


8.6 




31.0 


13.26 


42 




355 




460 


7:00 PM 


0.0 




294 


6.78 


43 




355 




0.603 


7:30 PM 


0.5 




27.5 


1.60 


47 




264 




0.409 


8:00 PM 


10.0 




252 


0.06 


61 




283 




0.460 


8:30 PM 


10.5 




247 


-0.06 


62 




283 




0486 


0:00 PM 


11.0 




23.2 


0.00 


66 




73 




0.642 


0:30 PM 


11.5 




21.4 


0.06 


62 




260 




0.499 


10:00 PM 


12.0 




226 


0.06 


63 




257 




0.538 


10:30 PM 


12.5 




21.3 


0.00 


60 




281 




0.512 


11:00 PM 


13.0 




20.8 


0.00 


66 




263 




0.447 


1 1 :30 PM 


13.5 




10.0 


-0.06 


71 




209 




0.577 


8/20/89 12:00AM 


14.0 




18.5 


0.06 


70 




84 




0.629 


12:30 AM 


14.5 




16.3 


-006 


71 




368 




0.551 


1 :00 AM 


15.0 




18.5 


0.06 


67 




360 




0.525 


1 :30 AM 


15.5 




18.3 


0.00 


76 




300 




0.616 


2:00 AM 


16.0 




17.7 


0.00 


82 




270 




0.512 


2:30 AM 


16.5 




16.0 


-0.12 


82 




268 




0.603 


3:00 AM 


17.0 




16.7 


0.06 


82 




205 




0.538 


3:30 AM 


17.5 




16.6 


-0.06 


84 




324 




0.616 


4:00 AM 


18.0 




16.7 


000 


83 




308 




0512 


4:30 AM 


18.5 




16.7 


-0.06 


85 




287 




0.577 


6:00 AM 


19.0 




16.7 


-0.06 


82 




273 




564 


5 JO AM 


19.5 




16.1 


000 


82 




335 




0.564 


6:00 AM 


20.0 




150 


-0.06 


87 




333 




0.616 


6:30 AM 
7:00 AM 
7UJ0AM 
8:00 AM 
8:30 AM 
0:00 AM 
0:30 AM 
10:00 AM 


20.5 
21.0 
21.5 
22.0 
22.5 
23.0 
235 
1 240 




14.5 
144 
164 
188 
10.7 
21.2 
23.2 
23.2 


0.36 
1.56 
642 
1848 
25 56 
438 
39 18 
4602 


00 
00 
80 
76 
74 
71 
71 
66 




208 
270 
358 

270 
296 
284 

206 

308 




0.577 
0.525 
0.400 
0.400 
0.460 
0.638 
0.525 
0.551 



p€ige 11.7 



Table A.10 Pond Water Conditions Ehiring Second Ehurnal Study: Peck Pond 



r 


Dale 


Time 


feme 


Tenp 


EC(25'C) 


pH 


DO 


Eh 


Den$rty 


1 






tws 


"C 


dS/m 




mgfl 


mV 




1NW 


8/19/69 


10:00 AM 





24.9 


12.80 


7.5 


8.8 


375 


1.010 






12:00 N 


2 


2.62 


24.08 


7.82 


9.6 


367 


1.010 






2:00 PM 


4 


26.4 


12.35 


7.33 


9.0 


383 


1.010 






4:00 PM 


6 


27.8 


12.50 


7.59 


9.2 


362 


1.010 






6:00 PM 


8 


27.4 


12.90 


7.83 


9.6 


373 


1.010 






8:00 PM 


10 


24.8 


12.65 


7.82 


9.4 


370 


1.010 






10:00 PM 


12 


23.5 


12.78 


7.72 


9.0 


357 


1.005 




8/20/89 


12:00 M 


14 


23 


13.21 


7.86 


8.8 


392 


1.005 






2:00 AM 


16 


22.2 


13.88 


8.37 


9.0 


432 


1.010 






4:00 AM 


18 


22.2 


14.62 


8.81 


9.0 


375 


1.010 






6:00 AM 


20 


21.8 


14.63 


9.1 


9.2 


392 


1.010 






8:00 AM 


22 


21.2 


14.94 


8.86 


9.4 


373 


1.010 






10:00 AM 


24 


23.4 


14.88 


8.81 


10.1 


389 


1.010 


3SW 


8/19/89 


10:00 AM 





24.5 


98.38 


8.32 


8.2 


372 


1.120 


Brine 




12:00 N 


2 


27.9 


101.61 


8.41 


12.4 


362 


1.115 


Shrimp 




2:00 PM 


4 


31.6 


101.24 


8.43 


14.4 


364 


1.115 






4:00 PM 


6 


33.2 


99.48 


8.79 


12.0 


364 


1.115 






6:00 PM 


8 


30.9 


101.34 


8.73 


7.6 


347 


1.120 






8:00 PM 


10 


27.5 


124.67 


8.81 


2.4 


341 


1.120 






10:00 PM 


12 


25 


98.00 


8.55 


4.4 


322 


1.115 




8/20/89 


12:00 M 


14 


22 


99.57 


8.28 


2.4 


308 


1.115 






2:00 AM 


16 


20.1 


100.22 


8.28 


2.2 


377 


1.120 






4:00 AM 


18 


19.2 


99.77 


8.38 


4.4 


331 


1.115 






6:00 AM 


20 


17.7 


99.77 


8.35 


3.2 


345 


1.115 






8:00 AM 


22 


17.3 


101.30 


8.32 


3.8 


342 


1.120 






10:00 AM 


24 


22.4 


99.05 


8.25 


5.0 


349 


1.120 


3 W 


8/19/89 


10:00 AM 





27.4 


144.47 


7.8 


2.4 


373 


1.235 


Salt 




12:00 N 


2 


32.2 


140.56 


7.76 


1.6 


361 


1.250 


Crusts 




2:00 PM 


4 


35.1 


150.75 


7.9 


1.6 


349 


1.250 






4:00 PM 


6 


36.2 


147.88 


8.07 


1.4 


367 


1.250 






6:00 PM 


8 


33.8 


143.54 


8 


1.6 


345 


1.300 






8:00 PM 


10 


33 


135.78 


8.04 


1.8 


369 


1.300 






10:00 PM 


12 


26.3 


139.86 


7.94 


2.0 


333 


1.300 




8/20/89 


12:00 M 


14 


23.6 


139.71 


7.67 


1.6 


323 


1.300 






2:00 AM 


16 


21.3 


139.74 


7.68 


1.8 


357 


1.300 






4:00 AM 


18 


28 


117.45 


7.8 


2.6 


319 


1.300 






6:00 AM 


20 


19.9 


137.08 


7.82 


2.0 


330 


1.300 






8:00 AM 


22 


18.8 


140.75 


7.73 


24 


329 


1.300 






10:00 AM 


24 


22.8 


132.11 


7.66 


2.6 


331 


1.300 



page 11.8 



Table A.11 Pond Water Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Barbizon Pond 
pet© ' fbrie I Tdmp Sd^ RH ^5 WindSps«d 
^ hr$ 'C Radiation % [fe-BCtJon" mfe si? 



8/17/89 



8/18/89 



11:00 AM 


0.0 


23.9 


56.82 


55 


246 


0.526 


1 1 :30 AM 


0.5 


25.3 


9.72 


51 


224 


0.553 


12:00 PM 


1.0 


264 


58.80 


51 


221 


0.580 


12:30 PM 


1.5 


26.5 


65.58 


47 


105 


0.486 


1:00 PM 


2.0 


29.2 


66.66 


46 


186 


0.606 


1:30 PM 


2.5 


28.2 


66.24 


47 


218 


0.473 


2:00 PM 


3.0 


28.8 


64.74 


44 


235 


0.526 


2:30 PM 


3.5 


30.0 


62.10 


38 


53 


0.486 


3:00 PM 


4.0 


31.4 


58.86 


35 


2 


0.513 


3:30 PM 


4.5 


31.4 


54.66 


32 


312 


0.619 


4:00 PM 


5.0 


31.5 


49.20 


3 


306 


0.513 


4:30 PM 


5.5 


31.8 


43.32 


28 


336 


0.580 


5:00 PM 


6.0 


32.3 


37.02 


27 


317 


0.460 


5:30 PM 


6.5 


31.5 


29.46 


26 


288 


0.619 


6:00 PM 


7.0 


31.1 


22.14 


27 


4 


0.619 


6:30 PM 


7.5 


30.5 


14.46 


30 


341 


0.566 


7:00 PM 


8.0 


29.9 


7.50 


31 


341 


0.500 


7:30 PM 


8.5 


28.2 


1.38 


42 


3 


0.553 


8:00 PM 


9.0 


26.4 


0.06 


46 


8 


0.526 


8:30 PM 


9.5 


24.7 


-0.06 


48 


325 


0.447 


9:00 PM 


10.0 


23.5 


0.00 


54 


312 


0.646 


9:30 PM 


10.5 


22.0 


■0.06 


59 


284 


0.473 


10:00 PM 


11.0 


22.1 


0.00 


58 


311 


0.513 


10:30 PM 


11.5 


20.9 


0.06 


63 


307 


0.566 


11:00 PM 


12.0 


19.9 


0.00 


67 


309 


0.513 


1 1 :30 PM 


12.5 


19.5 


0.00 


71 


303 


0.633 


12:00 AM 


13.0 


18.9 


-0.06 


73 


316 


0.447 


12:30 AM 


13.5 


18.1 


-0.60 


77 


324 


0.619 


1 :00 AM 


14.0 


17.9 


0.06 


78 


306 


0.553 


1:30 AM 


14.5 


18.1 


-0.06 


79 


296 


0.486 


2:00 AM 


15.0 


18.0 


0.00 


78 


297 


0.553 


2:30 AM 


155 


17.6 


0.00 


79 


293 


0.540 


3:00 AM 


16.0 


17.3 


0.06 


81 


301 


0.526 


3:30 AM 


16.5 


16.5 


0.06 


85 


320 


0.566 


4:00 AM 


17.0 


15.5 


0.00 


87 


359 


0.460 


4:30 AM 


17.5 


14.8 


0.00 


94 


67 


0.566 


5:00 AM 


18.0 


14.2 


0.00 


97 


53 


0.593 


5:30 AM 


18.5 


14.3 


0.06 


96 


291 


0.566 


6:00 AM 


19.0 


14.4 


0.00 


97 


264 


0.619 


6.30 AM 


19.5 


14.2 


0.78 


94 


275 


0.486 


7:00 AM 


20.0 


16.3 


4.86 


90 


292 


0.447 


7:30 AM 


20.5 


18.3 


11.10 


84 


293 


0.526 


8:00 AM 


21.0 


19.3 


17.94 


80 


300 


0.553 


8:30 AM 


21.5 


20.3 


25.26 


77 


307 


0.619 


9:00 AM 


22.0 


21.5 


32.58 


74 


306 


0.447 


9:30 AM 


22.5 


23.8 


15.84 


70 


312 


0.460 


10:00 AM 


23.0 


24.5 


45.78 


68 


313 


0.593 


1050 AM 


23.5 


26.5 


51.18 


64 


348 


0.593 


11:00 AM 


24.0 


25.6 


55.98 


63 


329 


0.566 



page 11.9 



Table A.12 Pond Water Conditions During Second Diurnal Study: Barbizon Pond 



8/17/89 



8/18/89 



Thtw 


tens 


Tanp 


£C<2SX) 


PH 


DO 


Eh 


Oen^ 




tlfS 


*C 


dS/m 




mqfl 


mV 




1 1 ;00 AM 





24.9 


11.87 


8.18 


20.0 


340 


1.005 


1 :00 PM 


2 


27.4 


11.77 


8.5 


20.0 


348 


1.005 


3:00 PM 


4 


28.6 


11.87 


8.73 


20.0 


355 


1.005 


5:00 PM 


6 


27.6 


12.19 


8.27 


17.6 


321 


1.005 


7:00 PM 


8 


24.6 


12.00 


7.85 


11.0 


311 


1.005 


9:00 PM 


10 


24.3 


11.76 


7.44 


5.2 


411 


1.005 


11 :00 PM 


12 


21.2 


12.31 


7.24 


5.2 


420 


1.005 


1 :00 AM 


14 


18.8 


12.29 


7.55 


5.0 


400 


1.005 


3:00 AM 


16 


17.5 


12.48 


7.57 


5.4 


325 


1.005 


5:00 AM 


18 


19.3 


14.70 


7.47 


5.6 


112 


1.005 


7:00 AM 


20 


18.9 


14.69 


7.49 


7.8 


375 


1.005 


9:00 AM 


22 


21.5 


13.23 


8.12 


17.6 


365 


1.005 



11:00 AM 24 25.4 13.00 8.46 20.0 370 1.005 



page 11.10 



1 



APPENDIX B: CIMIS Weather Data from Stations Near To Evaporation Ponds 



c 
o 

a 



a 
c 
c 
.2 

S 

m 

C 
I- 

a 

5 

CO 

•V 

« 

s 



a 
o 



li 

> 



u o 



TO ^ 

en — 



Q. 
I P 



a> -r CNJ CM 
Csl ~ •«» rr 



5T- f^ Tt tn c\i 
^■■•-ooooo 



o o o o o 



o o o o 



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